Editor’s note
The following abstract describes a publication that is only available as a downloadable PDF.

CoverDeveloped by Montana State University Extension and the University of Wyoming
Adapted with permission

This guide is one in the Exploring Energy Efficiency and Alternatives (E3A): Solar Hot Water Applications for the Home, Farm or Ranch series. This one guides you through calculating yearly operating costs for various solar water heating systems so that you can make a complete cost comparison.


  • Electric backup
  • Gas backup
  • Incentives that lower costs


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