Editor’s note
The following abstract describes a publication that is only available as a downloadable PDF.

CoverDeveloped by Montana State University Extension and the University of Wyoming
Adapted with permission

This guide is one in the Exploring Energy Efficiency and Alternatives (E3A): Solar Hot Water Applications for the Home, Farm or Ranch series. Solar hot water systems can be designed for different climates. There are several system types that work well in Missouri to keep collector fluids from freezing. The system options discussed in this guide apply to small systems, such as those used for homes.


  • Backup water heater sytems
  • Closed-loop collectors
  • Evacuated-tube collectors
  • Flat-plate collectors
  • Open-loop collectors
  • Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) certification
  • Tankless, on-demand water heaters


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