Controls for TCD have not yet been identified and their development will require better understanding of the biology of the walnut twig beetle and the canker-producing fungus. Because of the extended period when adult beetles are active, insecticide spray applications will likely have limited effectiveness. Furthermore, colonization of the bark and cambium by the fungus may continue even if adult beetles or larvae are killed by the insecticide. This will likely limit the ability of systemic insecticides to control transmission of the fungus to new hosts before substantial infection occurs. Rapid detection and removal of infected trees currently remains the primary means of managing thousand cankers disease.