University of Missouri Extension

MP388, Reviewed October 1994

Milan: A Case Study of Developing Community Initiative

Department of Community Development

Preface

This is an outstanding case study of the process of community development. The setting is a small town in north central Missouri. However, the location is not nearly as important as what happened to the people as they went through this process of inquiry and self-discovery. The same thing can and does happen in many other communities when this process is used.

What distinguishes this case study from so many is its emphasis on people and their capacity for development. In a most refreshing and frank manner, the interviewees relate the problems and potential of Milan as they understood them, what others thought about these issues and how residents of the town addressed themselves to these issues. As a result, Milan has achieved many of its goals. It has not arrived in the sense that it has accomplished all that needs to be done. No community ever reaches this point. But Milan residents have rediscovered the principles of democratic and cooperative work toward common goals.

As one interviewee states, "I believe, basically, that when people are aware of a community's needs and the issues are presented to them that their decisions will be right most of the time."

We believe other communities can achieve the same success as Milan if the residents are involved, informed, willing to study the issues and to take the necessary action to achieve their goals. We trust this case study of Milan will encourage other communities to undertake this process.

Bryan Phifer
Professor and extension program leader
Department of Regional and Community Affairs

Acknowledgment

The full cooperation of the people of Milan has made this publication possible We started in the fall of 1972 asking if we could tape a few interviews for the purpose of developing a special news release. The questions posed were intended to encourage the responding citizens to answer in any way they felt. We were more interested in them "telling it like it is" than in loading materials to give the town a good image.

Milan's citizens, like many in other rural communities, have been in transition from almost entire dependence on agriculture to a more diversified economy of agriculture, industry, trades and services. Present concerns are now toward trades and services development.

The interviews are not as representative as we would like. To obtain the number and variety would make the publication too voluminous. However, we have purposely interviewed some of those involved in the community development laboratory that was conducted in the winter of 1965. Persons chosen included representatives of the third and fourth generation, those born and still living in the county, those born in the county but who left the community for a short time and newcomers. The first interviews resulted in a special feature article written by Fred Kiewit that appeared in the Sunday edition of the Kansas City Star on Nov. 19, 1972.

The Department of Regional and Community Affairs and the Editor's Office at MU encouraged us to record additional interviews and work toward this publication. They were also most helpful in assisting with the editing and obtaining documents for the publication. The MU Extension staff in Sullivan County and the Green Hills Region was most helpful in reviewing the materials and making suggestions.

Robert Wilson, editor of the Milan Standard, has been most cooperative in permitting us to use his office, in gathering information from past publications of the Milan Standard and their centennial history and setting up schedules for interviews. His review of the work drafts has helped to clarify and correct mistakes.

The people of Milan have been most responsive in spite of the fact that some of the interviews were taken at the coffee breaks and lunch hours of busy people. Published 1974.

Milan, Missouri — A case study of developing community initiative

Gerald Gabriel
Area Community Development specialist

Note
The author served as Area Community Development specialist in the Green Hills area in which Milan is located from 1961 to 1965 and from 1970 to 1973. At this writing, he is serving as Community Development specialist in the South Central Ozarks area.

Introduction

This publication is written as a guide to groups concerned about the lack of progress of their community. It is not a how-to-do-it prescription for community development. Rather, it traces the thinking and feeling of one community that lead to action.

Packaged community development programs too often result in a mechanical attempt to manipulate growth and people. The most desirable and lasting development in a community results from the creative activities of people who live there.

Intrinsic or inner satisfactions are developed when individuals do what they want to do. On the other hand, when they are lured into doing material things for extrinsic rewards, inner frustrations can result. The reward becomes the goal rather than satisfying people's felt needs.

Community development may be thought of as an approach coordinating the visible things people want and the invisible thinking, feeling process of attaining their wants.

The visible The invisible
People of the community are concerned about such material things as: Elected, appointed, professional and voluntary leaders who attempt guidance of community affairs need to become equally concerned about:
Public facilities
Water systems, sewers, natural gas, electricity, streets, etc.
1. How the community's needs, wants, concerns and issues are identified.
Does a particular request reflect desires of the community or one interested person or group?
Public institutions
Schools, libraries
Others

Parks, recreation, cultural events, etc.
2. How people who are concerned with material things feel about people. Do they feel superior — "The public has to be sold"? Do they feel the product is worth any means? Or is their ultimate concern the development and understanding of people?
However, if these material things become the focal point, the people are overlooked. Then the means to achieve the physical become paramount. 3. Ways to establish communications and understanding in the community.
4. Community values, attitudes and morale.
5. The stage of the development of people.

When the community is looked upon as a place where people live, work and strive for the good life, it becomes "the people's community." The people own it, manage it, maintain it and are responsible for what it is — and what it is becoming.

Where community issues, concerns, wants and needs are openly discussed, they become the talk of the town at many informal gatherings. Individuals learn most effectively from first-hand experience. Milan, the community subject of this case study, has learned to encourage discussion and acceptance of ideas from a wide variety of people and sources — people with little or no formal schooling, people with college degrees, people with low incomes, people with high salaries and from senior citizens and youth, and newcomers and longtime residents.

Community problem solving stews and simmers in many informal groups over a period of several months, then seems to move toward general agreement.

Sullivan County and Milan

Sullivan County is located in North Central Missouri. The first settlers came in 1836, and by 1845 the county was organized.

Most of Sullivan County is covered with beautiful rolling hills and some fertile flat lands. Unlike many counties of the state, it has few natural springs. Prior to the coming of the first settlers, about half of the land was in timber. Most of the early settlers were second-, third- and fourth-generation Americans of English origin from the hill countries of Kentucky, Tennessee and the Carolinas.

In the early 1880s (peak population growth) much of the timberland was cleared and some grain crops were grown. The county was one of the leading counties in the state in the production of horses, cattle, sheep and hogs. In recent years the county's main export has been beef cattle.

Transportation has played a vital role in the county. In early times, livestock was driven to Brunswick (40 miles to the south) on the Missouri River for export. Three railroads came to the county in the 1870-1880 period and exports were greatly increased.

Table 1
Population changes in the county

Year Population
1850 2,983
1860 9,198
1870 11,907
1880 16,569
1890 19,000
1900 (peak population growth) 20,282
1910 18,598
1920 17,781
1930 15,212
1940 13,701
1950 11,299
1960 8,783
1970 7,572
Valuation of all property in the county for three sample years
1867 $2,230,534
1894 $5,356,702
1971 $19,963,620

Milan — the Sullivan County seat

Milan is near the center of the county on State Highways 5 and 6. The town was first laid out near a spring on a 50-acre farm in the late 1840s. It became the county seat in 1850.

Table 2
Population changes in Milan

Year Population
1890 1,234
1900 1,757
1910 2,191
1920 (peak population growth) 2,395
1930 2,002
1940 2,016
1950 1,972
1960 1,670
1970 1,794

Milan has had a number of disastrous fires, some destroying several businesses. In 1879 and 1888, most of the east side of the square was destroyed. However, each time the buildings were rebuilt.

Milan was first incorporated in 1859 by act of the Legislature. Most of the time the town has operated under the Mayor-Council form of government.

After the Civil War, migrants into Milan, who became prominent businessmen and leaders were from several northern states and from eastern Missouri. A few others were first- and second-generation Americans from Germany and England. At times, the diversity of cultures has made it difficult to reach community decisions. From time to time, the city council has had stormy sessions and at one time it disincorporated. Learning to work together for mutual benefit has been neither rapid nor easy.

Awareness of need

Milan and Sullivan County have always taken great pride in their livestock production (most years they rank in the upper 10 counties in the state) and the agricultural economy that has supported the retail and business trades.

Milan, at its peak population of nearly 2,400 in the 1920s held a population of above 2,000 through the depression years of the 1930s and the war years of the 1940s. But, during the 1950s the county and Milan lost population continually. Farms were growing larger and fewer in numbers. Thus, like other communities based largely on a farm economy, it began to lose inhabitants. This gave businessmen some concern. With highway improvements and better automobiles, it also became easier for county residents to shop in larger towns: Kirksville, 30 miles to the east; Trenton, 30 miles to the west; Brookfield, 30 miles to the south; and Unionville, 25 miles to the north.

The usual response of a merchant in losing customers is to become jealous of other competing merchants and to make overtures to capture a bigger share. However, by 1955, Milan businessmen were aware that competition was only one factor. Customers were leaving for metropolitan areas. Loss of population, particularly youth, became the talk of the town. The chamber of commerce, civic clubs, service clubs and the city government began to look for ways to provide new jobs.

A small cheese plant in Milan gave a few jobs to help the local economy. Later, a turkey dressing plant was obtained, which provided another small boost to employment. Although both industries provided a boost to the local economy, increased demands for city services, such as water, sewer and electric power became paramount and caused a serious problem in the mid-1960s and early 1970s.

The population and economy continued to decline in the early 1960s. Citizens became more united in searching for ways to solve their problems. The MU Extension division had a community development program in Grundy County. From news reports, it looked as if this type of program might help Milan's people solve their problems.

In 1964, a group of Rotarians contacted the Sullivan County Extension agent and asked for some information on the community development program. The community development specialist was invited to speak to the Milan Rotary Club. He reviewed some social and economic data on Sullivan County and Milan and what other communities were doing to solve their development problem.

Questions the Rotarians asked were centered around, "How can we get an industry?" The specialist's response was, "How does a teenager get a boyfriend or girlfriend?" The ensuing discussion led to the conclusion that they strive to make themselves attractive, both physically and with personality improvements. Someone added the teenager might try to find the real interest and needs of the type of boyfriend or girlfriend they wanted to attract.

The county agent then went through the MU administrative channels to see if the community development specialist could work part-time in Sullivan County. When the specialist was approached on expanding his territory, his response was that this would spread him pretty thin but he believed that if the county would agree to hold a series of 15 two-hour training meetings, he could handle them and they should try to enroll at least 25 people.

Through the efforts of the various civic and service clubs, more than 60 people enrolled.

Subject matter in the class

The enrollees were highly interested in the training program and willing to accept responsibilities so the specialist was able to change to a laboratory approach using self-study committees to analyze their own problems and explore practical solutions.

With the cooperation of the Jaycees, the Lions, the Rotary, the Business and Professional Women, city government and a number of citizens from other communities in the county who joined the class, the following studies were made and reported to the class by the enrollees:

Most of the sessions in the laboratory consisted of 10- to 20-minute presentations by instructors and discussion of handouts on data, guides for small discussion groups and sources of information. A great deal of emphasis was placed on the social and human aspects of development. (An outline of the 15 laboratory sessions is in the appendix.) This was modified by the students and the extension specialist after the laboratory started to reflect the needs and interests of the participants.

Near the end of the 10th session, students were beginning to decide what needed to be done first. Students were encouraged to speak openly with their neighbors on what was being discussed: What are our real problems? How can we work together to solve them?

The state specialist at MU had taught two previous short courses — the first at Princeton and the second at Trenton. Most of the laboratories at Milan were taught by the area community development specialist and local resource people. The state staff assisted with sessions two, eight and 11.

Students explored some of the human roadblocks in their community and tried to determine the real grassroots problems at home and elsewhere.

At first, the class members seemed reluctant to suggest costly improvements. In the past, they had felt the community could not (or would not) support those when proposed by the city council. However, as they began to study what is required to attract industry and new jobs, they saw that community facilities and other community improvements were essential. As public decisions were being made, private individuals began to invest in improvements in the community, because they also felt the community now had a future. A lake was developed, many new residences were built, commercial buildings were improved and existing local industries were given additional attention and encouragement to expand.

Results

Some clear-cut advances

In the early 1960s, the city had attempted to pass an important bond issue. It failed by a few votes. While the community residents talked a great deal about their situation, they had many fears about how to proceed with plans in the light of their local economy. The failure of one important issue led to further discouragement.

In 1972, seven years after the laboratory sessions, the community passed a water bond issue by 95.8 percent and a sewer bond issue by 93.7 percent without the assurance of a federal grant to help.

The agricultural study committee found that feed grains were being exported from the western side of the county. Feed grains were being imported in the eastern side of the county to feed turkeys. Many feeder cattle and hogs were being sold outside of the county. By encouraging the finishing of cattle and hogs, they increase jobs and income through agriculture

The community development specialists were seldom called upon after the laboratory training sessions, except for information and for an additional training session when the City of Milan decided to develop a comprehensive plan. During the laboratory sessions, the participants had been given firsthand experiences in how to involve other people actively. They began to work on their own community problems under their own initiative.

Apparently, class members involved in the study committees and in relating to the public learned that involvement is not a mechanical process or a means of using people. Active involvement must begin with what the people think, include search for the real grassroots problems and a choice among alternative solutions. Involving local citizens in projects that begin with predetermined solutions often meet with considerable resistance.

Enrollees, while aware of the material things that needed to be done, increasingly became conscious that the community belonged to the people. When people are to be affected by an issue, they need to be involved in all stages of the decision process. Concerns and issues in communities seldom find wide acceptance when only a few people are "doing for the sake of the community."

The following interviews were conducted with Milan leaders to further evaluate the community development training program.

Interview with Robert Wilson, editor of the Milan Standard

Specialist
A community is always undergoing change. However, there are times it seems to reach a plateau or gets hung up. Then, at some future time, it does something to get going again.

Wilson
In the early 1960s, several of the citizens became very conscious of our loss of population. We had tried to get another industry and it seemed we were not making any progress.

We then began working with the MU Extension community development program. I think one of the most effective things that we did in that program was the session we had on community development. We really dug in to see what we were doing — or not doing — to bring about improvements in our towns and to furnish additional jobs.

Specialist
Do you recall the first things the group and the community decided needed to be done to bring about improvement?

Wilson
I think we were in agreement the first thing we needed to do was to improve our community services. And, second, we had arrived at a place that we needed to look closer home and inquire from our present industries as to how we could help them become more successful and expand. Most of the workers in this area have farm backgrounds and are willing to give a fair day's work for a fair day's pay.

Our real needs were not in the labor force. We began to find that if our industries were to become competitive with others, they needed natural gas and increased water supply. This meant we had to look for possible lake sites and increased treatment facilities. And if our industries used more water, they also needed increased sewage disposal. A fourth need was that of electric power.

Specialist
I take it that the community's real concerns were turned from promotions for new industries to improving community facilities.

Wilson
We continued to work on industrial development but we became aware of our weak spots, and our community concerns were focused on these. We set up four study committees. They were sewers, water or lake, city taxes and finances, and airport.

As a result, we really began with the sewage problem.

When we began to actively involve people in community issues, we began to find that our people wanted improvements. We have passed four sizable bond issues in this community by more than 90 percent affirmative votes in the past five years.

If you go back to the training programs (laboratory classes) we had in 1965, you will see that all groups were well represented. Those attending (60) the class took the information back to their neighbors. Enrollees were also invited to present programs at our civic and service clubs. We seldom held what is called a public meeting. The informal type of involvement seems to be more effective in this community. As we see it, this community belongs to the people and they are encouraged to ask questions and make comments on any issue that is under consideration.

I'm not just speaking of Milan. Other communities were involved in the class and have been involved in both community and county issues. Many of these felt what we did to help Milan would also help them. They are very much aware that many of their citizens work in industries located here. Green City and Green Castle are both making good progress.

Specialist
The informal communication of ideas seems to be very effective, whether the ideas are positive or negative.

Wilson
I think our people learned to speak out without any fear of criticism during our community self-survey that was done by the Jaycees in the mid-1960s. The Jaycees had more farmers than non-farmers and one of their main projects was a crops project used to raise funds. They had a countywide involvement in many of their projects and I'm sure this helped to develop a countywide spirit for improvement.

During the learning laboratory, the people in the sessions and those who became involved in the informal discussions between sessions began to look at "our" problems. Both parents and grandparents knew that unless we found ways to produce acceptable jobs, their children and grandchildren would have to leave the county. As these enrollees became increasingly aware of the problem and the alternatives, we began working together to bring about a much desired change.

Specialist
What did you observe happening in the community?

Wilson
As the city council became more venturesome toward solving our public facilities problems, we also began to see new homes being built, older homes being remodeled and many improvements in the commercial business places. I think I can see there were more improvements in the past five years than were done in the previous 20 years.

Another thing that became apparent was the new development around the outer edge of town, both new homes and new commercial businesses. The lake that was built south of town was slow in getting started, but it's now getting to be an asset. The hospital improvement, the nursing home and the new apartment building have done much to add to our town.

Specialist
In my experience with the community, since about 1965, it seems you have consistently had water and sewer problems.

Wilson
You see, when we were working on water and sewers in the mid-1960s, we had no idea that one of our industries would make such a rapid expansion. In 1959 the engineers told us the new improvements would be adequate for a town of 4,000. Banquet Foods added about 400 jobs and they also use a lot of water.

A community that is only concerned with getting more industry to supply more jobs often overlooks helping the existing industries to be successful. During this long, dry spring season of the late 1960s, our lake went dry and we were forced to pump water out of the creek. However, for the last three years, our people knew this condition could exist.

We first raised the dam on the reservoir 5 feet to supply needed water for our industry. The people of the town knew this wouldn't be enough and it wasn't. I believe our people also became aware of their own increased use of water. As they had money to buy such equipment as electric dishwashers and automatic washing machines, they used a lot more water.

We now have two lakes that have about 50 acres of water. The new one that the public voted in 1972, will add another 220 acres of water and has a 3,000-acre watershed.

Specialist
With what other issues was the community concerned?

Wilson
About the time the first sewer issue was being discussed, the school had problems and we also had to go for a school bond issue. This sewer issue of 1964 was to serve the entire town. It failed because we really didn't involve enough people in this issue.

When the natural gas issue came up in September 1966, we had an extensive information campaign. We also had some outspoken opponents, but I think this increased the involvement of the people. The vote on this issue was 543. The four study committees appointed in September 1967 account for many people becoming involved. They did not go out and select one site for a lake. Three sites were located and a lot of study went into each of the three. Each of the study committees also had a city councilman on it.

Specialist
You have had an increase of about 7.4 percent in population during the past 10 years and about 75 new housing units in the town. Where are these new people coming from?

Wilson
Some of these moved in from the surrounding country, but we also have some town people who like to move to the country. We are getting some families moving back from the cities. Some of these move back to retire and some young families move back because they believe this is a better place for their children. I suspect some of this is escapism from the crime, juvenile delinquency, etc. in the city.

Specialist
The 1970 census did show you have had some increases in the 20- to 30-year-old age group. Would you tell us the methods you used in getting action on your natural gas, water, electricity and lake?

Wilson
The people of the community were well aware of the problems Some water spigots just didn't give out any water at times. The council had an engineering study made. Then the mayor and council asked each of the four leading clubs for time to fully explain the study and answer all questions. Nothing was withheld. The council presented each issue as the engineering study presented it. The Milan Standard also published the completed engineering study in their weekly paper.

Then the four clubs jointly divided up the town and each club took a section. Every home was visited by a team. In most cases, the team went into the home, sat down, visited and then frankly discussed the issue. Each citizen was encouraged to speak his piece, make any comment — pro or con. The few people objecting were not argued down. Their comments were accepted as well as those of people who were for the issue.

We also had what we called a "hot line," that is, the city clerk was at the city desk to answer any questions by telephone. However, the workers were so well informed the hot line was never used.

On election day, we also had volunteers making calls encouraging people to vote and offering transportation The election brought the highest turnout we had in seven years.

A total of 596 (95.7 percent) voted for the water issue and 26 voted against. On the sewer issue, the vote was 573 (93.7 percent) for and 36 against.

It seems to me people in our community vote for issues when they feel free to vote for or against. If they are pressured or "sold," they tend to resist.

Interview with Vivian Moffit, active in Business and Professional Women (BPW) and American Association of University Women (AAUW), member of the hospital board and involved in numerous community activities. She is a fourth-generation citizen of Milan

Specialist
You have been involved in a lot of activities in this community and I understand very active in BPW.

Moffit
I have served as citizens' participation chairman for the BPW and represented our club in the initial contacts concerning the issues you are discussing. I also met with representatives from the other clubs when we planned the visiting program. We thought two people would be so much more effective. There are about 40 members in the campaign.

We have used the same procedure on other community issues and found it to be very effective.

Our town is about 30 percent retired people. When the issue was explained to them, we told them it would increase their costs. We also told them why we needed to pass the issue. I believe most of our retired people voted for the issue.

Specialist
Were there any real objections?

Moffit
It rained the day of the election and some said we will have water since it's raining. Some objected because the water and sewers were attached on the issue. But we really had very few who objected.

Specialist
What did you do if the people were not at home?

Moffit
We left a little printed brochure — a question and answer sheet — and we also tried to go back another time to talk to them. The thing all the service clubs have found is that getting into the homes and visiting with people is very good public relations. One of the BPW members remarked, "I don't know when I've enjoyed anything so much."

We got acquainted with new people, we also found out where and how people lived in our community. I believe it did a lot of good for the morale of the town.

Specialist
Some campaigners feel it is to their advantage to give only positive information.

Moffit
We have found that if you "tell it like it is," people begin to trust you. If you withhold something, they will sense you're concealing something. We're not working on one issue — we are working on future issues. I believe if the people have all the information that is available, they will make an intelligent decision on it. At least this works here in Milan.

We believe if the citizens are informed correctly, they will go along for the need. We have had some say "I really can't afford this, but I know we have to have our industry to employ people."

Specialist
What areas of progress do you see that Milan is making?

Moffit
I think we've got people who are really interested in Milan as being a town that is up and coming. We've got a group of people who are really interested and are willing to work for the town's future. The interested ones get involved. Active involvement is not a problem here.

Interview with Robert Cary, a dentist and mayor of Milan at the time

Specialist
How long have you been mayor of Milan?

Cary
Seven months.

Specialist
Were you a councilman before being a mayor?

Cary
No, I did not serve on the council, although I have been active in community affairs and did serve on the airport committee.

Specialist
As a new and inexperienced mayor, you inherited a critical water and sewer issue to initiate, didn't you?

Cary
No, the town had been making plans for about two years It really wasn't the council's responsibility. The town belongs to the people and they are responsible for what is done.

Specialist
How do you determine how the people feel — or how they will vote when an issue is presented at the polls?

Cary
On the electricity issue, people had been having low voltage for some time. At times the TV pictures were only half sized. As elected officials, we do a lot of talking, but we also do a lot of listening. Our real concern was to make sure they understood the issue, that they had the facts at their disposal so they could make a proper decision. The door-to-door educational program is very effective for this

First of all, people see their friends are in favor of it. The personal contact is very important. The service clubs did their jobs better than we did.

Specialist
I understand that you, the president of the bank and a lot of other professionals as well as the blue-collar workers were involved in the door-to-door educational program.

Cary
If you're concerned about your community, it really doesn't matter who you are. You will work for it. Mayors, councilmen, business people and citizens working on an issue need, to be honest, first of all. Honesty is a thing the people will remember for a long time.

The council must be willing to accept its responsibility and be willing to lay it on the line to the public. Some told us that it was a very unpopular issue, that no one wanted it. You see the results. Evidently someone didn't check the public's feeling on the matter.

The local newspaper helped a lot. If you've seen Wilson's newspaper presentation, you know he prints both sides of the issue and also states how he, as a citizen, feels on the issue. We could not get very far without his help.

I don't like the word public education. It suggests that the public isn't educated or intelligent. The public isn't easy to fool and most of the time they are right when they make a decision.

Specialist
We find a number of working groups and some councils that like to get all the problems worked out behind the scenes without inference from the public. Then, when the details are worked out, they begin their information program. In this way they say, "We don't allow the opposition to build up." How would this work in Milan?

Cary
I think that is a negative approach. People today are informed. If you are holding out on citizens, then you're really not being honest. Because, quite frankly, it's the people's town. If they don't want the issue to pass, there shouldn't be anybody try to impose it on them. When you treat people sincerely, they will believe you are sincere and what's more, they will see that you are helping them to do what they want done. If you make this approach, you'll have no trouble.

Specialist
I would have to agree. I believe we see evidence, too, that even when a small group makes a sincere effort to work out things for the community and then give them a predetermined answer, issues are hard to pass, no matter how good the solution may be.

Over a period of years, Milan has dealt with several issues successfully. Most people here recognize the need for basic facilities to attract jobs.

Cary
In six months, we voted in over a million dollars in public works. When you consider the limited resources of this community, we are doing very well. We voted in a $300,000 electricity issue, a $425,000 reservoir and a $335,000 improvement in our sewage disposal system. These were absolute necessities. The town could not progress without them.

We do have an overall plan. We started about five years ago with 10 basic steps. We've taken care of three of them. Improvements to the park and the new lake will help.

Specialist
Are you following the plan?

Cary
Not necessarily as a priority listing, but more in a feasible, practical way. Situations do change. The plans are very helpful. There are parking lots, airports and other things to be done — we may never get them all, and of course time and situations will change.

The overall plan gives us some guidelines. Citizens take pride in a community's accomplishments and this helps future issues. In 1967 we passed a $525,000 water treatment and storage issue. At that time Banquet Foods employed 165 people, today they employ over 500. This growth has meant a lot to the spirit of the town. Our industries are paying more than their fair share.

Specialist
What do you think will be the next issue?

Cary
I really don't know. Right now we are concerned about adequate sewers for the rest of the town. If the people want it, they will let us know and of course, by vote, it will be up to them.

If we had a little more foresight, we would have planned some of these things before they became so expensive.

If the citizens had been willing to pay more for services in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, we could have had the funds to do many more things. However, we now have problems that, if brought up and pushed through, could quickly divide the community.

Specialist
What do you think is the future of Milan? Do you think it has about reached its peak?

Cary
No, I think Milan will continue to grow. Our present industries are already considering expansion and we do have some industrial contacts. We expect shopping centers or at least new commercial business. All this means more public facilities and services, but I think our water problem is solved for some years.

We have about 200 farmers that are working here on part-time jobs and I think the industries we have are very compatible to our community's particular needs.

Specialist
There are a lot of rural water districts going in the area. Since this is one of the areas where the underground supply isn't dependable, could the new lake supply a rural water district?

Cary
The new lake has about a 3,000-acre watershed; and that is a lot of water. I don't know what the cost factors would be for a rural water district.

Interview with Hugh Baldridge, a local druggist, a hospital board member and involved in many Milan activities

Specialist
It looks like Milan has made a lot of progress in the past five years. As I recall, when I met with you and several other Sullivan County people at an educational program in community development a few years ago, you had a lot of questions. To what do you attribute your success?

Baldridge
Actually, when you reach the final phase of this thing, you have to have a city government that will get the issues before the people in a form on which they can make a decision. I think that is what has happened to us. We have a city government that realized that the time for action had come and they get it before the people, and the people respond very favorable. I believe, basically, that when people are aware of a community's needs and the issues are presented to them, their decisions will be right most of the time.

Specialist
Your community has a high percentage of low-income people, retired people and so forth. There are many towns that we work within the area that have a higher family income, have fewer low-income people that say when an issue comes up, "We can't afford it."

I think you are often wrong in assuming measures are hard to pass because we have a high percentage of old-age pensioners and social security retirees. Those people want these things, too

Ninety-five percent of them voted for the improvements here.

I think that when we sit back and try to make a judgment on people — what they want because they are in a certain income bracket, I think we are on the wrong path.

Specialist
The studies we have seen on who votes for and who votes against issues bears out your conclusion the senior citizens are quite representative of the total population in the way they vote. If anything, they want to pay for it

Baldridge
Just because people are old, it doesn't mean they don't have a lot of years of progressive service back of them to this community and they are not going to change that pattern just because they may be retired or old.

Specialist
Have the factories here had any labor problems?

Baldridge
They had a little flare-up a year or two ago, but it was resolved rather quickly.

Specialist
But, you have had no prolonged strikes?

Baldridge
Oh, no, no — we haven't had any, other than the one at REA. The workers struck for about nine months and then gave up. They were trying to form a union, but they didn't get it done.

Wilson
The strike against the railroad was the last big strike, wasn't it?

Baldridge
That was before you were born, so we haven't had much trouble there either.

Specialist
Hugh, one other thing, you probably remember this better than Bob. When did the community begin to sort of wake up in this period of growth and development?

Baldridge
Oh, I would say that was in the last 10 or 15 years that they began to do something about it, wouldn't you, Robert?

Specialist
What caused them to do something about it?

Baldridge
Well, I would say that the continued loss in population was one thing. And the disappearance of the family unit farm — the small farm — and the need to increase the revenue of these small farmers so that they could stay on the farm. I can well remember, and Robert can too, when we had a lot of small operations here of 40 to 80 acres and they were maintaining the family and sending the young members to school. And the families were getting along pretty good. But now these units have disappeared and what we are trying to do is maintain a family farm that is probably 160, 240 or 400 acres and in some cases 1,000 acres.

Wilson
And, in addition to that, the operator or his wife is working part-time in a factory.

Baldridge
One of them or both of them. In several cases, both of them are working.

Specialist
Do you feel you are retaining any more of your young people, say in their 20s and 30s?

Baldridge
Oh, yes, I believe we are. Don't you Robert?

Wilson
Maybe 15 to 20 percent more. I don't know. I haven't really sat down and figured it up. But, there are more young people staying around here than there were 10 years ago.

Specialist
Are they working in factories?

Wilson
I don't know about factories, but they were previously going to the cities about as quick as they could get there.

Specialist
Do you know of any that have gone to the city and returned?

Wilson
Yes, we have had some move to the city and soon get fed up with city life and come back to Milan.

Specialist
I would assume that some did this, regardless of the fact that your industries do not pay the wages they do in metropolitan areas.

Wilson
Young people today are more concerned about living in the country and are willing to make financial sacrifice to do so.

Interview with John Rogers, chairman of the Milan Bank and active in community affairs

Specialist
Would you mind telling us just how long you have lived in this community?

Rogers
I've been in the bank 52 years and in the community about 62 years.

Specialist
For a while, Milan seemed to be going down hill. There was a gradual deterioration of homes and commercial businesses. The people were discouraged. Then they seemed to wake up and became aware of some things that were happening and tried to change the trend. Would you tell us about when that happened?

Rogers
I can tell you when Milan started going down. Of course, we were built as a railroad town. We had a railroad shop here. There was a strike in 1922 and some people moved out. Then people gave up and didn't make any concerted effort to redevelop. F.M. Stamper started building here, enlarging their building and hiring more people in the last 15 years. I think we got some younger men in town and they began to take an interest.

Specialist
Was there anything other than this younger group moving that caused the town to become aware of some of the problems?

Rogers
Our county was going down in population and we could see that the town was sagging. The buildings were beginning to get in a bad state of repair. I don't know who first started it, but it sort of ballooned after they started it.

Specialist
Evidently, there must have been several people who became concerned.

Rogers
I would have to give a lot of credit to the Junior Chamber of Commerce. They started out here with a bunch of young fellows and did a lot of things. Things we didn't think were possible. Building a community center without any money, for example.

Specialist
What is the major thing that has been done in the way of development in Milan in the past ten years?

Rogers
Our city government has done many things. They are required to give more services, they give more. I think we've improved our commercial and home buildings. The main thing that has happened here — there weren't any residences built here for a good many years — of course, that started probably 22 or 25 years ago but the big boom in building started about 15 years ago.

Specialist
We're interested in both what you see physically and materially and we're also interested in what happens with people that makes this possible. There has been less friction with one another over the things you wanted to do. And, yet you look back in the background, you've had an influx of people from different countries. No doubt, at one time, you had a lot of differences. It would seem to some that the last ten years you've been working together to achieve what you want. What do you think caused this?

Rogers
I think, mainly. our needs were so great and we realized it. And, we realized that cooperation was the only way to get it done. I don't know if it was the people who came in from the Extension Service or just what it was, but I'm sure we realized we had to do something.

Specialist
Local people decided what needed to be done and began to do it. As far as I can tell, bond issues are one thing — one way of measuring how you are working together.

Rogers
Yes, our voting record on bonds has been a lot better these last few years.

Specialist
You passed them in the last few years with better than 90 percent but this is only one measure. Are the people pretty cooperative on other things?

Rogers
I think so when you give them an opportunity. We have gone out personally and discussed these issues with people in their homes or on the street.

Specialist
You mean this personal contact helps?

Rogers
If you explain things, anything you try to do, you explain it to them, rather than let them wonder about it and try to figure it out themselves and get it wrong. I think we've had a good deal of that in the past.

Specialist
We've worked with a lot of communities that want to get this all worked out beforehand in isolation — say it is a city council or a chamber of commerce or whatever it might be. They want to get it all worked out and then bring it all out in public and get approval, and many, many times they turn it down. They publicize it in the paper, on radio, and public meetings but personal contact seems to be lacking.

Rogers
If they have to figure it out for themselves in isolation, they get to talking about it between themselves and they get things distorted.

If they've got someone who will talk to them and they can ask questions and make comments, they get a lot better picture.

Specialist
Oftentimes, when you get this distortion, people seem to take pride in the fact, "Well, here we've thought of something that nobody else has recognized." As a person who has been highly involved in the various activities, how do you think the people feel about things once you correct them on this distortion?

Rogers
They respond to it. They seem to appreciate it If you just come out and talk to them about it.

Specialist
I think what we are saying is that people tend to trust each other when you continually tell them the truth. What do you think is the future of Milan?

Rogers
Well, I don't see any big boom. I think we'll have growth, steady growth.

Specialist
A boom could cause you more problems

Rogers
That's right. That's one thing we do not need. If we could have gradual growth, it would cause us less problems. Growth would make the merchants happy.

Specialist
Would you mind giving us some information on bank deposits?

Rogers
They have increased In fact, we gain about a million dollars a year.

Specialist
This has been fairly steady for the past few years?

Rogers
Last year has been a little better than the others, usually we gain in the second half of the year and then start dropping off in the first half of the next year. This past year it stayed throughout the year.

This is a farm pattern. It didn't happen this year. It could be the influence of those weekly checks from our industries. Milan's industries used to have seasons of work and seasons of unemployment.

Specialist
What do you see as some of the major problems Milan will be facing in the next five years?

Rogers
I think we're getting our community facilities pretty well taken care of. With our water plant and our electrical plant, we still have some sewer problems. Our main problem is getting repair services.

Specialist
Repair services are a problem with all smaller towns. Local people have to go to Kirksville, Trenton, or Brookfield or somewhere else. If you could make some advances in the service area, this would help your town in producing new jobs.

Rogers
Yes, and we also need more recreation.

Specialist
What do you have in the way of community recreation?

Rogers
We have a pretty good golf course and country club. But that only takes care of a relatively small group.

Specialist
What do you have for young people?

Rogers
Very little.

Specialist
Does the school have a lot of activities?

Rogers
They have a lot of them. The school keeps some of the young people occupied and we have a summer drive-in show But we have no community theater.

Specialist
Are you retaining more young people now than you were 10 years ago?

Rogers
I'm sure we are. Due to the fact that they want to stay and some are returning after living elsewhere. They don't like the city

Interview with Leonard Knox, the local Presbyterian minister in the community about five years

Specialist
Has there been much change in Milan since you moved here?

Knox
Yes, but if we get too many changes then there can be rebellion of the establishment or the established establishment. This is part of my philosophy. Previous ministers coming here have not stayed long. Through some of my past experiences, I had made the observation that the next time I made a move I was going to become more a part of the community than I had before. One of the ways to do it is to refuse to live in church-provided homes.

So, I came here with the provision that I would buy my own home. I am a property owner and a taxpayer. I think because of that, people know I am a part of the community.

Because I am buying, when I enter the conversation at a council meeting, they know I am not there as a fly-by-night, a fellow that goes out next week. I'm there because I am a taxpayer like the rest of the people that come to appeal to the city council. And I think this is part of it when you say newcomers. There are a large number of newcomers who aren't apt to stay. If they band together to get something done then there is this rebellion. And I think we're not plagued with that kind of thing. Newcomers here have a tendency to stay and what they've fed into the community is turning around to be a benefit to the community. It is a slow fusion.

Specialist
In this process, you are involving and becoming involved with some long-time residents and some people who have either gone to college and returned or have been working elsewhere and come back. Do they really accept you newcomers?

Knox
Small towns have such a personality that you have to live there about four years before you are accepted. You're seeing that, too.

That is exactly what happens. They were pleasant with me, they were friendly, but I was always held off at a distance. I think that Milan is strong in that direction. It has been strong. I think it is being changed. It is not by any specific effort on my part or anybody else's part, but it is just happening. More of our young people are going out and coming back. They're having an influence on change in the community.

This is creating some of the change Some people are commuting to Kansas City to work and one I know of is commuting to Chicago to work. These kind of people are having an influence.

Specialist
When they come back, they see the community differently than they did when they left.

Those people are usually not highly involved in community affairs. How do you mean this?

Knox
Some of them are. More than you would think. The one that works in Chicago is involved in PTA. This is minor, but an involvement.

Specialist
The wife lives in the community?

Knox
The wife resides here, the children go to school, the man comes home weekends. I was surprised when I learned that he works in Chicago. His wife lives here, the kids go to school and there they were at PTA meetings

Specialist
They're living here because they feel like it is a better place to raise their children?

Knox
They don't want their children raised in the inner city. They want to get here in the clean air and around people they can trust.

Specialist
The town has been very, very successful in passing bond issues in the past five years. We have the record. They run over 90 percent affirmative. Can you go beyond the five years and tell us what lead to this?

Knox
I know we could go back further than this. We got the water bond first in 1965.

Specialist
What do you attribute this to?

Knox
Effort on the part of the progressive people.

Specialist
Leonard, are these house-to-house visits concerning community issues high-pressure sales techniques?

Knox
I think a high-pressure sales talk wouldn't get very far. Ours is just an explanation of the value that would be gained for Milan.

Specialist
Do you see any other effects of this informal getting into the homes by teams? People in today's world do not very often have their neighbors come in and visit them. Long-time residents really are slow to warm up and may never really accept people until they develop close relationships. One of the real problems in our society now is this loss of identity and this loss of informal contact. I'm wondering if this thing is having any effect in Milan?

Knox
I don't know whether you can say it that way or not. I don't find it in Milan and in their social situation. There is not a lot of visiting back and forth. The informal type of relationship is the same as you will find in the grocery stores, in the businesses and at the auction sales. In fact, I'm a little bit surprised that if you go and attend the little household auctions very much you find you spread out your acquaintance.

Specialist
But is it superficial or do you really talk about issues and concerns?

Knox
It sometimes leads to talking about issues. In terms of social, I find that Nellie's Cafe is a good place to talk about issues. You sit there and drink coffee and the issues come out.

Specialist
Do you have to initiate this or will others initiate it?

Knox
Now that I'm accepted, others will initiate issues. Before that I didn't get anywhere. They'd always change the subject or there would be an embarrassing silence. But now, I don't have to bring up the discussions. I enter into whatever is going on and we'll talk about the decisions of the city council, last night's the election or other community issues.

In my corner of Milan, we have no sewers. We are interested in getting sewer service. We haven't held any general meetings and we haven't tried to sell the sewer, but we bring up the question in discussion.

Specialist
You're creating awareness?

Knox
They're very aware of the need. They know the need, but some haven't wanted it. And it is more than that. There are people who are perfectly satisfied with what they have. And then there are those who couldn't afford the expense the 20-year loan from FHA for our sewer district. Some of us are talking quietly, not making an issue out of it. I think if we brought it to a vote, it would fail. It will take time for these people to think it through, to absorb these decisions. Sometimes even in your private life, it is the same thing. You may put it off two or three times until all of a sudden there comes the realization of need and you go ahead with it. Some would want to be in the process of building some funds before they actually do anything.

Specialist
Leonard, I think we could say this is implanting an idea, but not manipulation.

Knox
I don't see any signs of manipulation in Milan. About my implanting, when the bond was passed, to me the sewer service in this town was just as important as a new reservoir.

Specialist
And you anticipate the sewer to be one of the big problems right now?

Knox
The city council refuses to include it in any of their elections because they say that will kill it.

Specialist
This is because some people have paid for the sewers they now have?

Knox
Yes, that's the way they see it.

Specialist
Do you anticipate a reconciliation of the side of the city council trying to find ways in which all the city can have sewers?

Knox
Yes, I think they are searching for ways now. The face of the city council has changed. We are continuously interested in improving the composition of the city council.

Specialist
Let's turn our attention to the future. What do you perceive the future of Milan to be?

Knox
I think there is no limit to what the town can be so long as the people want it. In essence, this is what mean about the city council. I have an implicit faith in the democratic process. It's sometimes terribly frustrating and slow. If we really permit and encourage people to accept their rights and responsibilities, I think we will always be able to do what we want to do. Where there's a will, there's a way!

Specialist
Regardless of the fact that you do not have an ideal transportation system, you're a long distance from any big metropolitan area, you're not a growth center and you lack many desirable factors for economic growth.

Knox
You see, Gerald, you have to scale your wants to what can be done. There are still lots of things that can be done without those things. Or if we really want those things, we can go ahead and work toward getting them.

Specialist
What you are saying is, "Begin with the things you can do and work toward the things you can't now do, but can in the future."

Knox
I don't know that the community can really take any credit for Banquet Foods, our largest industry, but it is a case where something started small and it grew. There could be other businesses if we could work together and use our imagination. New businesses would create more business and more work and would attract more people.

We need work that will encourage more younger people to stay. Or encourage younger people to use their imagination, to come back here and start a business themselves. They'll go away and get the knowledge. If they could just be convinced to be satisfied with a small measure of success. Success does not have to be with thousands of dollars and three automobiles and a three-car garage and big house and two kids. That's not really success. There's room for success right here where they can make a living in a community where they can enjoy living.

Specialist
I think most of the young people are taking that very much into consideration.

Knox
Ten years ago it was terrible, they tried to keep up with the Jones'. Most young people are beginning to think that isn't success. Success is being happy and finding satisfaction. There is some success to be found in just plain human satisfaction. Monetary values are beginning to be offset by social values. I'd rather have an $8,000 or $10,000 a year job in my hometown where I can be happy, than a $15,000 dollar a year job in a big city where I don't know anybody or have any close relationships.

Specialist
The things that you are talking about are those we're in which we are most interested. We know that a lot of communities do have economic factors for growth that puts them at an advantage over communities like this one, but they don't seem to take advantage of their opportunities unless they have this human creativity — the imaginative aspects you've been discussing. If you have that — regardless of the economic factors that are present — they have possibilities for growth and development.

Interview with Hoppy Flood, he lived in the community more than 15 years when he became actively involved by becoming city clerk and later city administrator

His wife was involved in the learning laboratory.

Flood
I have lived in Milan since July 1949. 1 first went into construction work here and learned to like the people. I lost my wife five years ago and could have retired and moved back to Chicago. I like Milan and the people. They accept me, although most of those that I associate with are younger people.

Specialist
Why did you become interested in becoming the city clerk?

Flood
The city lost their city clerk who had been the clerk for 25 years. He was about 83 or 84 years old. He gave up and they had to find a replacement. It was a little odd the way I started the job. I met the city attorney and he said, "One of the councilmen and I were talking and wondering if maybe you would consider the city clerk's job temporarily or if you would at least come and help out." I told them that I wasn't too busy and if there was anything I could do to help them out, I'd be glad to do it. He said I could think about it and decide later. The next Monday morning I was at home and had a late breakfast and the city attorney's brother came to visit me. During the course of the conversation, the alderman said, "How do you like your new job?" I didn't know I had a new job.

Specialist
If you had to pick a year when Milan started waking up, how many years ago has it been?

Flood
Well, I think probably a good starting place would be when they voted the $600,000 project to improve this water system back in about 1965.

Note
Flood was not involved in the leadership class, but he was aware that people began talking of city problems at about that time.

Specialist
Before you got involved in the city council and became city administrator — when you were on the outside and not a member of the immediate system — how did you view Milan at that time compared to how you viewed it after you got into the administration of the city government?

Flood
Oh, I think I was like a great majority of the people, they just didn't give it too much thought.

Specialist
Did the people discuss quite a number of issues and what was happening in Milan?

Flood
Generally, I think. At first, they didn't have too much to say about it. They just grumbled about the light rate they had to pay. Later the people became enthusiastic. They became concerned about Milan in about 1965. This is progress.

Specialist
Do you see it as progress when you were deeply involved?

Flood
Definitely yes. Because five years ago, our water system was inadequate, our treatment facilities were inadequate, our electrical system within the city itself was in very poor shape. All of these things have been improved. Including a new source of water supply. It is very, very definitely progress.

Specialist
What would you say would be one of the major factors that contributed to the passage of the bond issues that made progress possible?

Flood
Well, I think probably a good public information program, through our local paper and through people who got interested enough to find out that those things are, is pretty much a must. The people didn't vote them in, they were made to realize the consequences that might happen to Milan if some of those things weren't accomplished. They were made aware of the facts and they didn't hesitate and didn't complain when they knew it was pretty much a must to the city.

Note
The plants had to shut down their operations at times due to insufficient water pressure.

Specialist
We work in a lot of towns where the family income is much higher than it is in Milan. One of the reasons they say that they can't pass bond issues is that there are too many poor people, too many older people, etc. There are many low-income and older people in Milan and yet you have consistently passed the bond issues in the last five years. And with 90 percent or more in favor of them.

Flood
We've been very, very fortunate. The people have certainly backed the city officials and I think it was because they figured the improvements were needed by the city of Milan. I am very proud of their actions.

Specialist
What do you perceive to be the major problems that Milan is facing now?

Flood
Well now that we have these things and we're getting this work done, we still can't just sit down and say, "There it is." We're now going to have to keep on the ball and try to keep these things moving continually.

Specialist
One question I would like to ask, you are out of the realm of city politics and administration and you've had someone replace you and yet you are continuing to serve the city in the capacity of being the mayor's representative on several committees?

Flood
Oh, yes, I spend some time representing the city at area meetings. Like a lot of mayors, Cary is a very busy professional man and all of a sudden he finds himself with a new job. This year, they have council meetings on Tuesday nights, which is the night when most of the Green Hills Regional Planning meetings are held, so we can't be both places.

Specialist
You were in that office for about five years. Part of that time they called you a city administrator?

Flood
Well, that was another peculiarity of the job. When I started, due to the other man's age, a very antiquated record system was in use.

Specialist
You revised the books?

Flood
With the help of an auditor. That was my first suggestion, because I don't know if I could have ever gotten them straightened out or not. I started out on the job the first of July, and you are supposed to have a statement published in July.

I didn't think I could ever get ready and get those books (funds categories) straightened out because there were a dozen of them and no titles. And you just looked here and looked there. At that first council meeting, I pointed out that they hadn't had an audit for eight or nine years. I thought maybe this would be a good time for an audit. They agreed very readily. Then with the help of the auditor, we got a new system set up and used this system from then on.

Specialist
Milan for a while looked like it was discouraged, going down hill. What do you think caused it to sort of wake up?

Flood
A variety of things. We hadn't done anything to keep things in shape as we went along and the town was deteriorating. Some of the systems, especially the electrical system, were going downhill. Then the people woke up and they found out they were going to have to do something. They got it done. It has been a little surprising to me the way these people voted all these bond issues for improvements overwhelmingly. We think it is a good thing.

Specialist
Probably this was before your time, but there was a time that Milan had some difficulties in agreeing on things, then they seemed to get to the place where they could push together for things they desired. How did they get to this place or what was it that they did?

Flood
Mayor Cary made one good move enabling the public to really become interested in the city actively. He appointed several layman committees or advisory committees. They worked for the city and for the most part they did a really good job. We had time for information and good suggestions.

Note
The leadership group had developed study committees previously. The new mayor revised these and made them official.

Specialist
Do you recall how many committees and how many people were involved in this?

Flood
I think we had at least five committees appointed by the mayor. They had anywhere from five to six to a dozen people on each committee.

Specialist
And then people became aware of the magnitude of the problem.

Flood
I think that helped.

Specialist
Why were these committees established in the first place? Was there some goal the mayor and city council had in mind?

Flood
As far as I know, it was just a decision of the mayor. Citizen involvement would be a good thing for the city and offer some help to the mayor.

Specialist
Were you sitting in on one of these committees?

Flood
I was on quite a few of those committees as a resource person.

Specialist
Often, the great problems that we see are not the material, tangible kind of things, but the human problems. People can't agree. If you get committees started, they go in all directions, each one of them wanting their own way. Did you go through this?

Flood
We had a lot of very good discussions and a lot of differences of opinions, but ultimately they would reach a decision. Starting off, there might be a lot of different ideas, but they would go through the discussion and come to an agreement. And it would be presented to the council. They had no authority in themselves. They were advisory members and they might be asked to come to a council meeting or have a special meeting where they would make their report or recommendations

Specialist
How did the council respond to these kinds of committees? Were they in favor of it?

Flood
Yes. I never heard any objections to it. I think they were in favor of it very strongly and adopted many of their recommendations.

Specialist
You represented the city at those meetings? It seems to me that even though you are no longer being paid for your services, you are still quite interested in Milan. I am interested in why you are this way, because a lot of times when people retire they just completely quit.

Flood
I am interested in Milan. And I feel that I can continue to make my contribution to the future of the community.

Specialist
Thank you so much. I think this gets to the heart of the thing that we wanted. You are more interested in the people and their reactions than you are the physical things, but you know these are a team.

Some conclusions as a joint enterprise

Principles and people

Human values, the principles by which man lives, determine human action. An important aspect of growth or development of the community takes place within the individuals who make up the community and can be measured by the improved ways they take effective action. Human development and material development are interrelated. One seems to stimulate the other. The development of attitudes, understanding and skills can be measured, although they are less apparent than material development.

Community development cannot be taught from some easily defined set of principles that can be memorized and methodically applied. Community development must be learned in a first-hand experience — by doing.

However, there are some known concepts:

Appendix

Proposed community development laboratory (January to April 1965)

  1. 7 p.m.
    Orientation to course. Get acquainted. What are we trying to do? How to lead a small group discussion.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  2. 7 p.m.
    Concept of community development. Your role as a citizen — opportunities and challenges for civic community leaders.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  3. 7 p.m.
    Social change — Concept of community growth and decline.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  4. 7 p.m.
    Local and area concept of community influence of political, social and economic change in the community.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  5. 7 p.m.
    Influencing people in adopting, initiating and controlling change.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  6. 7 p.m.
    How adults learn.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  7. 7 p.m.
    People as a resource and people as a barrier to change.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  8. 7 p.m.
    Community conflict.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  9. 7 p.m.
    Communication and the art of listening.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  10. 7 p.m.
    Community self-study, surveys and self-analysis.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  11. 7 p.m.
    Technical and financial resources for community development.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  12. 7 p.m.
    Economic opportunities.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  13. 7 p.m.
    Short talks by local people on community problems.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  14. 7 p.m.
    Implications for action. Setting up programs as you want them.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.
  15. 7 p.m.
    Organizing for action.
    7:45 p.m.
    Coffee break
    8 to 9 p.m.
    Small group discussions or panel by students.

Revised laboratory schedule

Session 1  
  1. Purpose of the course
  2. Tentative identification of community problems
  3. County and Milan social and economic date and trends
Session 2 Community development leadership
Session 3 Social change
Session 4 Community involvement
Session 5 Community conflict
Session 6 The art of listening
Session 7 Communication motivation and communication
Session 8 Economic development
Session 9 Industrial development
Session 10 Job development through agriculture
Session 11 Federal aids to community
  1. OEM
  2. FHA
  3. HUD
  4. EDA
Session 12 Aids to community
Session 13 Economic Development Act
Session 14 Work session
Session 15 Work session

 

MP388 Milan: A Case Study of Developing Community Initiative | University of Missouri Extension

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