IPM1007, Revised November 2009
A taprooted perennial that emerges in the fall, persists throughout the winter as a basal rosette then bolts and produces seed on the end of unbranched stems in early summer. Found throughout the United States as a weed of pastures, forages, landscapes and some agronomic crops. Rosette leaves occur on long petioles, are without hairs, and are dark green with conspicuously wavy margins. Stem leaves are arranged alternately along the stem, have a membranous sheath (ocrea) that encircles the stem, and become progressively smaller up the flowering stalk. Leaves and stems become more reddish purple with age.
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