University of Missouri Extension

G8352, Reviewed October 1993

Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys

Jeffre D. Firman
Department of Animal Sciences

Tables from Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, eighth revised edition, 1984, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418. Estimated values are indicated in bold to distinguish them from the established requirements shown in Roman type.

Conversion chart

Tables

  1. Body weights and feed requirements of broilers
  2. Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet
  3. Body weights and feed requirements of leghorn-type pullets and hens
  4. Nutrient requirements of broilers as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet
  5. Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed
  6. Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys

Table 1
Body weights and feed requirements of broilers
Typical for broilers fed well-balanced diets containing 3,200 ME kcal per kilogram

Age Body weights Weekly feed consumption Cumulative feed consumption Weekly energy consumption per bird Cumulative energy consumption per bird
M F M F M F M F M F
1 week 130 grams 120 grams 120 grams 110 grams 120 grams 110 grams 385 ME kcal 350 ME kcal 385 ME kcal 350 ME kcal
2 weeks 320 grams 300 grams 260 grams 240 grams 380 grams 350 grams 830 ME kcal 770 ME kcal 1,215 ME kcal 1,120 ME kcal
3 weeks 560 grams 515 grams 390 grams 355 grams 770 grams 705 grams 1,250 ME kcal 1,135 ME kcal 2,465 ME kcal 2,255 ME kcal
4 weeks 860 grams 790 grams 535 grams 500 grams 1,305 grams 1,205 grams 1,710 ME kcal 1,600 ME kcal 4,175 ME kcal 3,855 ME kcal
5 weeks 1,250 grams 1,110 grams 740 grams 645 grams 2,045 grams 1,850 grams 2,370 ME kcal 2,065 ME kcal 6,545 ME kcal 5,920 ME kcal
6 weeks 1,690 grams 1,430 grams 980 grams 800 grams 3,025 2,650 grams 3,135 ME kcal 2,560 ME kcal 9,680 ME kcal 8,480 ME kcal
7 weeks 2,100 grams 1,745 grams 1,095 grams 910 grams 4,120 grams 3,560 grams 3,505 ME kcal 2,910 ME kcal 13,185 ME kcal 11,390 ME kcal
8 weeks 2,520 grams 2,060 grams 1,210 grams 970 grams 5,330 grams 4,530 grams 3,870 ME kcal 3,105 ME kcal 17,055 ME kcal 14,495 ME kcal
9 weeks 2,925 grams 2,350 grams 1,320 grams 1,010 grams 6,650 grams 5,540 grams 4,225 ME kcal 3,230 ME kcal 21,280 ME kcal 17,725 ME kcal

Table 2
Nutrient requirements of leghorn-type chickens as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet

Energy base kcal ME per kilogram diet* Growing 0 to 6 weeks
2,900
Growing 6 to 14 weeks
2,900
Growing 14 to 20 weeks
2,900
Laying
2,900
Laying, daily intake per hen** Breeding
2,900
Protein (percent) 18 15 12 14.5 16,000 milligrams 14.5
Arginine (percent) 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.68 750 milligrams 0.68
Glycine and serine (percent) 0.70 0.58 0.47 0.50 550 milligrams 0.50
Histidine (percent) 0.26 0.22 0.17 0.16 180 milligrams 0.16
Isoleucine (percent) 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.50 550 milligrams 0.50
Leucine (percent) 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.73 800 milligrams 0.73
Lysine (percent) 0.85 0.60 0.45 0.64 700 milligrams 0.64
Methionine + cystine (percent) 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.55 600 milligrams 0.55
Methionine (percent) 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.32 350 milligrams 0.32
Phenylalanine + tyrosine (percent) 1.00 0.83 0.67 0.80 880 milligrams 0.80
Phenylalanine (percent) 0.54 0.45 0.36 0.40 440 milligrams 0.40
Threonine (percent) 0.68 0.57 0.37 0.45 500 milligrams 0.45
Tryptophan (percent) 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.14 150 milligrams 0.14
Valine (percent) 0.62 0.52 0.41 0.55 600 milligrams 0.55
Linoleic acid (percent) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1,100 milligrams 1.00
Calcium (percent) 0.80 0.70 0.60 3.40 3,750 milligrams 3.40
Phosphorus, available (percent) 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.32 350 milligrams 0.32
Potassium (percent) 0.40 0.30 0.25 0.15 165 milligrams 0.15
Sodium (percent) 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 165 milligrams 0.15
Chlorine (percent) 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.15 165 milligrams 0.15
Magnesium (mg) 600 500 400 500 55 milligrams 500
Manganese (mg) 60 30 30 30 3.30 milligrams 60
Zinc (mg) 40 35 35 50 5.50 milligrams 65
Iron (mg) 80 60 60 50 5.50 milligrams 60
Copper (mg) 8 6 6 6 0.88 milligrams 8
Iodine (mg) 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.30 0.03 milligrams 0.30
Selenium (mg) 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.01 milligrams 0.10
Vitamin A (IU) 1,500 1,500 1,500 4,000 440 milligrams 4,000
Vitamin D (ICU) 200 200 200 500 55 milligrams 500
Vitamin E (IU) 10 5 5 5 0.55 milligrams 10
Vitamin K (mg) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.055 milligrams 0.50
Riboflavin (mg) 3.60 1.80 1.80 2.20 0.242 milligrams 3.80
Pantothenic acid (mg) 10.0 10.0 10.0 2.20 0.242 milligrams 10.0
Niacin (mg) 27.0 11.0 11.0 10.0 1.10 milligrams 10.0
Vitamin B12 (mg) 0.009 0.003 0.003 0.004 0.00044 milligrams 0.004
Choline (mg) 1,300 900 500 ? ? milligrams ?
Biotin (mg) 0.15 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.011 milligrams 0.15
Folacin (mg) 0.55 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.0275 milligrams 0.35
Thiamin (mg) 1.8 1.3 1.3 0.80 0.088 milligrams 0.80
Pyridoxine (mg) 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 0.33 milligrams 4.50
*These are typical dietary energy concentrations.
**Assumes an average daily intake of 110 grams of feed per hen daily.

Table 3
Body weights and feed requirements of leghorn-type pullets and hens

Age Body weight*** Feed consumption per week**** Typical egg production (hen-day percent)
0 weeks 35 grams 45 grams  
2 weeks 135 grams 90 grams  
4 weeks 270 grams 180 grams  
6 weeks 450 grams 260 grams  
8 weeks 620 grams 325 grams  
10 weeks 790 grams 385 grams  
12 weeks 950 grams 430 grams  
14 weeks 1,060 grams 460 grams  
16 weeks 1,160 grams 460 grams  
18 weeks 1,260 grams 460 grams  
20 weeks 1,360 grams 460 grams  
22 weeks 1,425 grams 525 grams 10
24 weeks 1,500 grams 595 grams 38
26 weeks 1,575 grams 665 grams 64
30 weeks 1,725 grams 770 grams 88
40 weeks 1,815 grams 770 grams 80
50 weeks 1,870 grams 765 grams 74
60 weeks 1,900 grams 755 grams 68
70 weeks 1,900 grams 740 grams 62
***Pullets and hens of Leghorn-type strains are generally fed ad libitum but are occasionally control-fed to limit body weights. Values shown are typical but will vary with strain differences, season and lighting. Specific breeder guidelines should be consulted for desired schedules of weights and feed consumption.
****Based on diets containing 2,900 ME kcal per kilogram, consumption will vary depending upon the caloric density of the diet, environmental temperature and rate of production.

Table 4
Nutrient requirements of broilers as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of diet

Energy base ME kcal per kilogram diet***** Weeks 0 to 3
3,200
Weeks 3 to 6
3,200
Weeks 6 to 8
3,200
Protein (percent) 23.0 20.0 18.0
Arginine (percent) 1.44 1.20 1.00
Glycine + Serine (percent) 1.50 1.00 0.70
Histidine (percent) 0.35 0.30 0.26
Isoleucine (percent) 0.80 0.70 0.60
Leucine (percent) 1.35 1.18 1.00
Lysine (percent) 1.20 1.00 0.85
Methionine + Cystine (percent) 0.93 0.72 0.60
Methionine (percent) 0.50 0.38 0.32
Phenylalanine + Tyrosine (percent) 1.34 1.17 1.00
Phenylalanine (percent) 0.72 0.63 0.54
Threonine (percent) 0.80 0.74 0.68
Tryptophan (percent) 0.23 0.18 0.17
Valine (percent) 0.82 0.72 0.62
Linoleic acid (percent) 1.00 1.00 1.00
Calcium (percent) 1.00 0.90 0.80
Phosphorus, available (percent) 0.45 0.40 0.35
Potassium (percent) 0.40 0.35 0.30
Sodium (percent) 0.15 0.15 0.15
Chlorine (percent) 0.15 0.15 0.15
Magnesium (mg) 600 600 600
Manganese (mg) 60.0 60.0 60.0
Zinc (mg) 40.0 40.0 40.0
Iron (mg) 80.0 80.0 80.0
Copper (mg) 8.0 8.0 8.0
Iodine (mg) 0.35 0.35 0.35
Selenium (mg) 0.15 0.15 0.15
Vitamin A (IU) 1,500 1,500 1,500
Vitamin D (ICU) 200 200 200
Vitamin E (IU) 10 10 10
Vitamin K (mg) 0.50 0.50 0.50
Riboflavin (mg) 3.60 3.60 3.60
Pantothenic acid (mg) 10.0 10.0 10.0
Niacin (mg) 27.0 27.0 11.0
Vitamin B12 (mg) 0.009 0.009 0.003
Choline (mg) 1,300 850 500
Biotin (mg) 0.15 0.15 0.10
Folacin (mg) 0.55 0.55 0.25
Thiamin (mg) 1.80 1.80 1.80
Pyridoxine (mg) 3.0 3.0 2.5
*****These are typical dietary energy concentrations.

Table 5
Nutrient requirements of turkeys as percentages or as milligrams or units per kilogram of feed

Energy base ME kcal per kilogram diet****** Age (weeks)
M: 0 to 4,
F: 0 to 4
2,800
M: 4 to 8,
F: 4 to 8
2,900
M: 8 to 12,
F: 8 to 11
3,000
M: 12 to 16,
F: 11 to 14
3,100
M: 16 to 20,
F: 14 to 17
3,200
M: 20 to 24,
F: 17 to 20
3,300
Holding
2,900
Breeding hens
2,900
Protein (percent) 28 26 22 19 16.5 14 12 14
Arginine (percent) 1.6 1.5 1.25 1.1 0.95 0.8 0.6 0.6
Glycine + serine (percent) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5
Histidine (percent) 0.58 0.54 0.46 0.39 0.35 0.29 0.25 0.3
Isoleucine (percent) 1.1 1.0 0.85 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.45 0.5
Leucine (percent) 1.9 1.75 1.5 1.3 1.1 0.95 0.5 0.5
Lysine 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.65 0.5 0.6
Methionine +cystine (percent) 1.05 0.9 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.45 0.4 0.4
Methionine (percent) 0.53 0.45 0.38 0.33 0.28 0.23 0.2 0.2
Phenylalanine + tyrosine (percent) 1.8 1.65 1.4 1.2 1.05 0.9 0.8 1.0
Phenylalanine (percent) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.55
Threonine (percent) 1.0 0.93 0.79 0.68 0.59 0.5 0.4 0.45
Tryptophan (percent) 0.26 0.24 0.2 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.1 0.13
Valine (percent) 1.2 1.1 0.94 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.58
Linoleic acid (percent) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
Calcium (percent) 1.2 1.0 0.85 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.5 2.25
Phosphorus, available (percent) 0.6 0.5 0.42 0.38 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.35
Potassium (percent) 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.6
Sodium (percent) 0.17 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.15
Chlorine (percent) 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12
Magnesium (mg) 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600
Manganese (mg) 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
Zinc (mg) 75 65 50 40 40 40 40 65
Iron (mg) 80 60 60 60 50 50 50 60
Copper (mg) 8 8 6 6 6 6 6 8
Iodine (mg) 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Selenium (mg) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Vitamin A (IU) 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000 4,000
Vitamin D (ICU)******* 900 900 900 900 900 900 900 900
Vitamin E (IU) 12 12 10 10 10 10 10 25
Vitamin K (mg) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.0
Riboflavin (mg) 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 4.0
Pantothenic acid (mg) 11.0 11.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 16.0
Niacin (mg) 70.0 70.0 50.0 50.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 30.0
Vitamin B12 (mg) 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003 0.003
Choline (mg) 1,900 1,600 1,300 1,100 950 800 800 1,000
Biotin (mg) 0.2 0.2 0.15 0.125 0.100 0.100 0.100 0.15
Folacin (mg) 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0
Thiamin (mg) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Pyridoxine (mg) 4.5 4.5 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 4.0
******These are typical ME concentrations for corn-soy diets. Different ME values may be appropriate if other ingredients predominate.
*******These concentrations of vitamin D are satisfactory when the dietary concentrations of calcium and available phosphorus conform with those in this table.

Table 6
Growth rate, feed and energy consumption of large-type turkeys

Age Body weight Body weight Feed consumption per week Cumulative feed consumption ME consumption per week
(kg): M (kg): F (kg): M (kg): F (kg): M (kg): F (Mcal): M (Mcal): F
1 weeks 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.30 0.30
2 weeks 0.27 0.24 0.20 0.17 0.30 0.27 0.60 0.50
3 weeks 0.58 0.47 0.45 0.39 0.75 0.66 1.1 0.80
4 weeks 1.0 0.70 0.61 0.46 1.36 1.12 1.7 1.2
5 weeks 1.5 1.1 0.70 0.60 2.06 1.72 2.3 1.6
6 weeks 2.0 1.6 0.86 0.76 2.92 2.48 2.9 2.1
7 weeks 2.6 2.1 1.08 0.89 4.00 3.37 3.5 2.6
8 weeks 3.3 2.6 1.30 1.04 5.30 4.41 4.1 3.1
9 weeks 4.0 3.1 1.51 1.18 6.81 5.59 4.8 3.6
10 weeks 4.7 3.7 1.78 1.34 8.59 6.93 5.2 4.1
11 weeks 5.5 4.3 1.99 1.47 10.58 8.40 5.7 4.6
12 weeks 6.3 4.8 2.25 1.59 12.83 9.99 6.3 5.1
13 weeks 7.1 5.3 2.51 1.70 15.34 11.69 7.1 5.5
14 weeks 8.0 5.8 2.66 1.75 18.00 13.44 7.8 5.8
15 weeks 8.8 6.3 2.89 1.82 20.89 15.26 8.4 6.1
16 weeks 9.7 6.7 3.05 1.92 23.94 17.18 8.8 6.4
17 weeks 10.5 7.1 3.13 2.03 27.03 19.21 9.6 6.7
18 weeks 11.3 7.5 3.27 2.07 30.34 21.28 10.2 6.9
19 weeks 12.1 7.8 3.43 2.15 33.77 23.43 10.9 7.1
20 weeks 12.8 8.1 3.60 2.23 37.37 25.66 11.6 7.3
21 weeks 13.5   3.71   41.08   12.5  
22 weeks 14.2   3.82   44.90   12.9  
23 weeks 14.8   3.94   48.84   13.2  
24 weeks 15.4   4.05   52.89   13.5  
G8352 Nutrient Requirements of Chickens and Turkeys | University of Missouri Extension

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