University of Missouri Extension

G2320, Revised August 2001

Nutrient Requirements of Swine and Recommendations for Missouri

Courtney A. Boren and Marcia S. Carlson
Department of Animal Sciences

Feed is the largest single item among the costs of producing pork. Pork producers should adopt a comprehensive feeding program based on sound nutrition principles and tailored to a specific operation. This guide provides the basis for such a feeding program.

The nutrient requirements presented in Tables 1-6 are adapted from the 1998 edition of Nutrient Requirements of Swine compiled the National Research Council (NRC) [Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine, 10th revised edition. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press]. The NRC values are thought of as minimum requirements without any safety allowances; therefore, the NRC requirements should not be considered as recommended allowances.

The recommendations for Missouri swine producers are similar to those made by professional swine nutritionists throughout the swine industry and are in close agreement with recommendations of other Midwest universities. All Missouri nutrient recommendations equal or surpass the NRC requirements (1998). These nutrient recommendations are influenced by cost, genetics or expected performance of pigs, herd health, facilities, and general management on a Missouri swine operation. Swine producers should keep in mind that while it is common practice to formulate diets on the basis of an amount per pound or per ton, pigs require given amounts per day. This becomes important where such animals as replacement gilts or gestating sows are fed limited amounts per day.

Table 1
Nutrient requirements for growing pigs fed ad libitum (90 percent dry matter).

NRC recommendations   Missouri recommendations
6 to 10 10 to 20 20 to 45 45 to 110 110 to 180 180 to 265 Live weight (pounds) 6 to 10 10 to 20 20 to 45 45 to 110 110 to 180 180 to 265
0.35 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.8 1.7 Expected gain (pounds per day) 0.35 0.6 1.1 1.5 1.8 1.7
Percent in diet   Percent in diet
26 23.7 20.9 18 15.5 13.2 Crude protein 27 26 22.5 18.5 16 14
0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.45 Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.55 0.55
0.70 0.65 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.40 Phosphorus (total) 0.80 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.50
0.55 0.40 0.32 0.23 0.19 0.15 Phosphorus (available) 0.60 0.55 0.40 0.30 0.21 0.21
0.59 0.54 0.46 0.37 0.27 0.19 Arginine 0.59 0.54 0.46 0.37 0.27 0.19
0.48 0.43 0.36 0.30 0.24 0.19 Histidine 0.48 0.43 0.36 0.30 0.24 0.19
0.83 0.73 0.63 0.51 0.42 0.33 Isoleucine 1.02 0.90 0.78 0.63 0.51 0.39
1.5 1.32 1.12 0.90 0.71 0.54 Leucine 1.5 1.32 1.12 0.90 0.71 0.54
1.5 1.35 1.15 0.95 0.75 0.60 Lysine 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.05 0.85 0.65
0.86 0.76 0.65 0.54 0.44 0.35 Methionine + Cystine 0.94 0.83 0.72 0.58 0.47 0.36
1.41 1.25 1.06 0.87 0.70 0.55 Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 1.41 1.25 1.06 0.87 0.70 0.55
0.98 0.86 0.74 0.61 0.51 0.41 Threonine 1.11 0.98 0.85 0.68 0.55 0.42
0.27 0.24 0.21 0.17 0.14 0.11 Tryptophan 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.19 0.15 0.12
1.04 0.92 0.79 0.64 0.52 0.40 Valine 1.04 0.92 0.79 0.64 0.52 0.40

Table 2
Missouri recommended nutrient additions per ton in grow-finish diets.

  Additions per ton
Nutrient Unit Grower period, 10 to 135 pounds Finisher period, 135 to 260 pounds
Salt (NaCl) pounds 3 to 6 3 to 6
Iron grams 150 125
Zinc grams 150 125
Manganese grams 30 25
Copper grams 15 12.5
Iodine grams 0.27 0.27
Selenium* grams 0.27 0.27
Vitamin A million international units 6 5
Vitamin D thousand international units 900 750
Vitamin E thousand international units 25 20
Vitamin K grams 2.5 2
Riboflavin grams 5.4 4.5
Niacin grams 30 25
Pantothenic acid grams 18 15
Vitamin B12 milligrams 25 20
*Maximum legal addition is 0.27g per ton (0.3 ppm)

Table 3
Nutrient requirements of breeding swine (90 percent dry matter).

NRC recommendations   Missouri recommendations
Boars
(sexually active)
Gestation
(440 pounds with 12 pigs)
Lactation
(385 pounds with 0.44 pounds per day gain)
Nutrients Boars
(sexually active)
Gestation
(440 pounds with 12 pigs)
Lactation
(385 pounds with 0.44 pounds per day gain
Percent in diet   Percent in diet
5.0 4.0 12.0 Daily feed intake (pounds) 5.0 4.0 12.0
13 12 17.5 Crude protein 20 13.5 19
0.75 0.75 0.75 Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.90
0.60 0.60 0.60 Phosphorus (total) 0.80 0.80 0.80
0.35 0.35 0.35 Phosphorus (available) 0.50 0.50 0.50
    0.48 Arginine     0.48
0.19 0.16 0.36 Histidine 0.19 0.16 0.36
0.35 0.30 0.50 Isoleucine 0.35 0.30 0.50
0.51 0.42 0.97 Leucine 0.51 0.42 0.97
0.60 0.52 0.91 Lysine 1.05 0.65 1.0
0.42 0.36 0.44 Methionine + Cystine 0.42 0.36 0.60
0.57 0.49 1.0 Phenylalanine + Tyrosine 0.57 0.49 1.0
0.50 0.43 0.58 Threonine 0.55 0.48 0.72
0.12 0.10 0.16 Tryptophan 0.14 0.13 0.20
0.40 0.34 0.76 Valine 0.40 0.44 1.0

Table 4
Missouri recommended nutrient additions per ton in gestation, lactation, and boar diets.

Nutrient Unit Breeding Stock
Salt (NaCl) pounds 10
Iron grams 150
Zinc grams 150
Manganese grams 36
Copper grams 15
Iodine grams 0.27
Selenium* grams 0.27
Vitamin A million international units 10
Vitamin D million international units 1.5
Vitamin E thousand international units 40
Vitamin K grams 4
Riboflavin grams 9
Niacin grams 50
Pantothenic acid grams 30
Vitamin B12 milligrams 40
Biotin milligrams 200
Folic acid grams 1.5
Choline grams 500
Pyridoxine grams 13.75
*Maximum legal addition is 0.27g per ton (0.3 ppm)

Table 5
Partial composition of feeds commonly used in swine rations (90 percent dry matter).

Feedstuff Crude protein percent Energy (ME) Kcal per pound Calcium percent Total phosphorus percent Amino acids
Lysine percent Methionine + Cystine percent Tryptophan percent
Corn U.S. #2 8.3 1,554 0.03 0.28 0.26 0.36 0.06
Grain sorghum 9.2 1,518 0.03 0.29 0.22 0.34 0.10
Wheat 11.5 1,500 0.04 0.39 0.38 0.49 0.26
Oats 11.5 1,232 0.07 0.31 0.40 0.58 0.14
Soybean meal (44 percent) 43.8 1,445 0.32 0.65 2.83 1.31 0.61
Soybean meal (48 percent) 47.5 1,536 0.34 0.69 3.02 1.41 0.65
Meat and bone meal 51.5 1,011 9.99 4.98 2.51 1.18 0.28
Fish meal (menhaden) 62.3 1,527 5.21 3.04 4.81 2.34 0.66
Alfalfa meal 17 832 1.53 0.26 0.74 0.43 0.24
Dicalcium phosphate*     20 to 24 18.5      
Monocalcium phosphate*     17 21.1      
Limestone*     35.84 0.01      
*Check actual values on feed tags

Table 6
Energy composition of selected fats-oils-carbohydrates.

Feed Dry matter percent Ether extract percent Linoleic acid (18:2) percent Digestible energy (Kcal per pound) Metabolizable energy (Kcal per pound)
Lard 100 100 10.2 3,766 3,614
Poultry fat 100 100 19.5 3,873 3,718
Beef tallow 100 100 3.1 3,636 3,490
Choice white grease 100 100 11.6 3,768 3,616
Corn oil 100 100 59 3,980 3,820
Soybean oil 100 100 51 3,977 3,818
Corn starch 99 0.22 0 1,818 1,811
Sucrose 99 0 0 1,725 1,652
Marcia Carlson is a state extension swine nutrition specialist. Courtney Boren is a graduate research assistant in animal sciences.

G2320, revised August 2001

G2320 Nutrient Requirements of Swine | University of Missouri Extension

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