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Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses and Herbaceous Nurseries

James Quinn
Horticulture Extension Specialist
David Trinklein
Division of Plant Sciences
Raymond A. Cloyd
Ornamental Entomology/Integrated Pest Management
Kansas State University

For more than 30 years the U.S. Department of Agriculture has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) as a way of dealing with arthropod (insect and mite) pests in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. IPM strategies include the use of cultural, biological and physical (or mechanical) methods as well as pesticides to manage pests. IPM relies on routine inspection, scouting and monitoring of arthropod populations followed by the use of insecticides or miticides only when pest populations are capable of causing plant damage. If the use of these pesticides is warranted, then it is important to choose those products that are less harmful to the environment and to beneficial insects and mites (Figure 1).

This publication is designed to assist greenhouse and nursery managers in selecting the appropriate pesticides to control or regulate the multitude of arthropod pests encountered in greenhouses and nurseries. The primary arthropod pests encountered in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries in both Missouri and Kansas are aphids, thrips, fungus gnats, shore flies, spider mites, mealybugs, plant bugs, whiteflies, leafhoppers, leafminers, leaf-feeding beetles and caterpillars.

Ladybird beetleFigure 1
Ladybird beetles, known for their appetite for aphids, occur naturally in Missouri but also can be introduced as biocontrol agents in greenhouses and nurseries.
 

Ways to reduce use of pesticides

Although pest control materials are generally effective in killing arthropod pests, overreliance on this control method increases the likelihood that resistance will develop in arthropod pest populations. Therefore, it is important to use cultural, physical and biological control strategies as well as using pest control materials. The following practices will reduce the use of pest control materials in greenhouses and nurseries:

  • Start the growing season with clean greenhouses and nurseries; remove weeds and all other plant material and eliminate debris, such as growing medium.
  • Maintain adequate sanitation and use proper cultural practices (watering and fertility) throughout the growing season.
  • Scout plants weekly, especially indicator plants, those that typically affected by arthropod pest problems.
  • Use colored sticky cards (yellow or blue) and visually inspect plants. Record insect and mite pest observations, such as abundance (number of pests per plant or row) and life stages (eggs, nymphs or larvae, pupae and adults).
  • Inspect transplants or propagation material carefully. Isolate newly introduced plants and inspect for any arthropod pest problems. If arthropod pests are present, then treat with an appropriate pest control material.
  • Treat only those plants directly affected by arthropod pests or localized infestations.
  • If possible, install insect screening over greenhouse openings such as ridge vents, sidewalls and intake vents. Be sure to compensate for the resulting reduction in airflow by increasing the screening surface area.

Alternative or "reduced-risk" pesticides

Use of pesticides has changed dramatically since 1985. Before that time, pesticides in three chemical classes — organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons — were relied upon to manage plant-feeding insects and mites. Use of materials in these older chemical classes was reduced somewhat with the availability of products in a fourth chemical class, pyrethroids. Since 1985, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reevaluated the registration of older pesticides and has encouraged the development of alternative pesticides that reduce risk to human health, toxicity to nontarget organisms, and the potential for groundwater contamination. These materials are preferred for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries because they are

  • Less persistent (shorter residual activity) in the environment
  • Less directly harmful to natural enemies, including parasitoids and predators
  • Effective in controlling arthropod pests at reduced application rates when compared with other pesticides

In 1993, the EPA defined alternative or “reduced-risk” pesticides as those that present less risk to human health and the environment than conventional alternatives. Although EPA does not permit manufacturers to use the term “reduced-risk” on product labels, the term is commonly used in promotional and marketing materials. In addition to chemical pesticides, some reduced-risk pesticides contain microorganisms. Examples include spinosad (Conserve), abamectin (Avid), Bacillus thuringienisis spp. kurstaki (Dipel), and Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis (Gnatrol). Pesticides derived from plants, often called botanicals or plant-derived essential oils, are also available for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Examples are the clarified hydrophobic extract from neem seed (Triact) and the product GC-Mite, which contains cottonseed, clove and garlic oil.

Tables 1 and 3 list pesticides registered for use in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Table 2 lists those specifically designated for use in organic cropping systems. More information on reduced-risk materials (PDF) is available online.

New pesticides are generally registered more rapidly for use on ornamental plants than on food crops because they are not edible and do not require extensive food safety testing. However, registration for greenhouse-grown vegetables is usually delayed or may not occur. This may be confusing especially with regard to vegetable bedding plants. Several of the pesticides listed in Table 1 may be used on vegetable bedding plants. However, it is critical to read the label to obtain this information. Higher infestation levels of arthropod pests are more tolerable in vegetable production systems than in ornamental crops because plants such as tomatoes and cucumbers are primarily grown for fruit production, and may even be saleable if the plants exhibit damage from insect or mite pest feeding. Overall, it is important to read the product label before applying any pesticide to make sure that the insect or mite pests as well as the treatment site are designated.
 

Guidelines for implementing a biological control program

  • Scout the crop regularly to detect early infestations of arthropod pests before they reach damaging levels.
  • Order natural enemies early (at least three weeks before they are needed) and release them immediately or as soon as possible after arrival. Follow the supplier’s instruction for release.
  • Install insect screening over greenhouse openings such as ridge vents, sidewalls and air intake vents to reduce the migration of winged aphids, adult whiteflies, thrips, and leafminers into greenhouses. Be sure to compensate for any reduction in airflow by increasing the screening surface area.
  • Avoid overfertilizing plants, particularly with nitrogen-based fertilizers, because this results in the production of soft, succulent growth that is more susceptible to aphids and the twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae).
  • Remove yellow sticky cards before applying parasitoids, because sticky cards can attract and capture parasitoids. Yellow sticky cards can be replaced one week after making releases.
  • Reduce the use of pesticide when bumblebees are used as pollinators, and avoid applying pest control materials with extended residual activity, such as products in the organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid chemical classes. Drenching applications of systemic insecticides to the growing medium will be less harmful than foliar applications.

Biological control

Biological control agents, or natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, can be purchased from commercial suppliers or distributors and released into greenhouses. This practice is referred to as augmentative biological control, for which there are two control strategies: inoculation and inundation. Inoculation consists of releasing small numbers of natural enemies early in the growing season or cropping cycle so that a population of natural enemies will establish and reproduce in the greenhouse, providing long-term control. Inundation is the introduction of much larger numbers of natural enemies into a greenhouse to provide control in the short term. Additional releases may be required during the growing season or cropping cycle to keep arthropod pest populations at low levels.

Consult biological control suppliers and distributors for additional information on the use of natural enemies in greenhouses and herbaceous nurseries. Biological control programs tend to be more effective when crops are grown for extended periods (e.g., cut flowers and vegetables) and when environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and relative humidity) are constant. Preventive releases of natural enemies are more efficient and easier in a monoculture (e.g., single crop) cropping system when there is only one arthropod pest than in a polyculture (e.g., multiple crops) cropping systems where there may be more than three different arthropod pests. For example, in the production of spring bedding plants, various insect pests may be present simultaneously, including aphids, thrips, whiteflies and fungus gnats.

The greenhouse environment does not contain the abundance and diversity of natural enemies found in outdoor settings or nurseries. This is mainly because of the extensive use of pesticides and because natural enemies typically do not migrate into greenhouses. The survival of natural enemies in a greenhouse is influenced by the abundance and types of prey that are present. However, certain parasitoids and predators sometimes occur naturally in greenhouses. For example, parasitoids in the genus Aphidius, which prey upon many different types of aphids, can inadvertently enter greenhouses through doors, vents or sidewalls. Adult females lay eggs into aphids, and these eggs hatch into larvae that consume the internal organs of the aphids, leaving only their hardened, brown exteriors, or “aphid mummies” (Figure 2). Eventually, a new adult parasitoid creates an exit hole and emerges from the dead aphid. Minute pirate bugs, Orius spp., are predatory anthocorid bugs that feed on thrips. These black and white bugs may also enter greenhouses through openings, particularly when weeds and field crops start desiccating.

Natural enemies that may be present in outdoor nurseries include ladybird beetles, green lacewings, ground beetles, soldier beetles, assassin/ambush bugs, damsel bugs, hover (syrphid) flies, tachinid flies, predatory mites and spiders.
 

Aphidius wasp The aphid's body, which mummifies Figure 2
The Aphidius wasp, left, stings the aphid and lays an egg in the aphid's body, which mummifies, right, as the egg develops.

Marion Herbert, Alberta Research Station, Vegreville, photo
 

Table 1
Pesticides (insecticides and miticides) registered for use on ornamental plants or greenhouse-grown vegetables. (Always read the label to determine if a pesticide can be used in a particular facility and on a specific crop.)

Common name or active ingredient (Trade name) Class Mode of action Reentry interval Labeled pests Additional products
abamectin
(Avid)
Macrocyclic lactone Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride channel activator [6] 12 hours spider mites, thrips, leafminers  
acephate
(Orthene/Precise)
Organophosphate Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1B] 24/12 hours aphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugs, thrips  
acequinocyl
(Shuttle)
Napththoquinone Mitochondria electron transport inhibitor [20B] 12 hours spider mites  
acetamiprid
(TriStar)
Neonicotinoid Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A] 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scales  
azadirachtin
(Azatin/Ornazin)
Botanical (insect growth regulator) Ecdysone antagonist [18B] 4/12 hours aphids, fungus gnat larvae, thrips, whiteflies, caterpillars Aza-Direct and Neemix
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis
(Gnatrol)
Microbial Midgut membrane disruptor [11A1] 4 hours fungus gnat larvae  
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki
(Dipel)
Microbial Midgut membrane disruptor [11B2] 4 hours caterpillars  
Beauveria bassiana
(BotaniGard)
Microbial (entomopathogenic fungi) Direct infection of host by hyphae 4 hours aphids, mealybugs, whiteflies Naturalis and Mycotrol
bifenazate
(Floramite)
Carbazate Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) gated antagonist [25] 4 hours spider mites  
bifenthrin
(Talstar/Attain)
Pyrethroid Sodium channel blocker [3] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, scales, plant bugs, thrips, leafhoppers, whiteflies  
buprofezin
(Talus)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator) Chitin synthesis inhibitor [16] 12 hours whiteflies, mealybugs, scales and leafhoppers  
chlorfenapyr
(Pylon)
Pyrrole Oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler [13] 12 hours spider mites, broad mite, cyclamen mite, fungus gnat larvae, thrips  
chlorpyrifos
(DuraGuard)
Organophosphate Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1B] 24 hours aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat larvae, leafhoppers, mealybugs, shore fly larvae, thrips  
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil
(Triact)
Botanical Suffocation or membrane disruptor 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, scales  
clofentezine
(Ovation)
Tetrazine Growth and embryogenesis inhibitor [10A] 12 hours spider mites  
cyfluthrin
(Decathlon/Tempo)
Pyrethroid Sodium channel blocker [3] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies  
cyromazine
(Citation)
Triazine (insect growth regulator) Chitin synthesis inhibitor [17] 12 hours fungus gnat larvae, shore fly larvae, leafminers  
diflubenzuron
(Adept)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator) Chitin synthesis inhibitor [15] 12 hours fungus gnat and shore fly larvae  
dinotefuran
(Safari)
Neonicotinoid Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A] 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, scales, leafminers, thrips, leafhoppers, mealybugs  
etoxazole
(TetraSan)
Diphenyloxizoline derivative (mite growth regulator) Chitin synthesis inhibitor [10B] 12 hours spider mites  
fenbutatin-oxide
(ProMite)
Organotin Oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor [12B] 48 hours spider mites  
fenoxycarb
(Preclude)
Carbamate (insect growth regulator) Juvenile hormone mimic [7B] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies  
fenpropathrin
(Tame)
Pyrethroid Sodium channel blocker [3] 24 hours caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, mealybugs, whiteflies  
fenpyroximate
(Akari)
Phenoxypyrazole Mitochondria electron transport inhibitor [21] 12 hours spider mites  
flonicamid
(Aria)
Trifluoromethyl­nicotinamide Selective feeding blocker [9C] 12 hours aphids, thrips, whiteflies  
fluvalinate
(Mavrik)
Pyrethroid Sodium channel blocker [3] 12 hours aphids, fungus gnat adults, thrips, leafhoppers, caterpillars, plant bugs, whiteflies  
hexythiazox
(Hexygon)
Carboxamide Growth and embryogenesis inhibitor [10A] 12 hours spider mites  
imidacloprid
(Marathon/Merit)
Neonicotinoid Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A] 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, scales, mealybugs Admire, Benefit, Mantra
kinoprene
(Enstar II)
Insect growth regulator Juvenile hormone mimic [7A] 4 hours aphids, fungus gnat larvae, mealybugs, scales, thrips, whiteflies  
methiocarb
(Mesurol)
Carbamate Acetylcholine esterase inhibitor [1A] 24 hours aphids, thrips, snails/slugs  
milbemectin
(Ultiflora)
Macrocyclic lactone Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) chloride channel activator [6] 12 hours spider mites  
novaluron
(Pedestal)
Benzoylurea (insect growth regulator) Chitin synthesis inhibitor [15] 12 hours thrips, whiteflies, caterpillars, leafminers  
paraffinic oil
(Ultra-Fine Oil)
Refined petroleum distillate Suffocation or membrane disruptor 4 hours aphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies  
petroleum oil
(PureSpray Green)
Refined petroleum distillate Suffocation or membrane disruptor 4 hours aphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies  
potassium salts of fatty acids
(insecticidal soap/M-Pede)
Insecticidal soap Desiccation or membrane disruptor 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, leafhoppers, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies  
pymetrozine
(Endeavor)
Pyridine (Azomethine) Selective feeding blocker [9B] 12 hours aphids and whiteflies  
pyridaben
(Sanmite)
Pyridazinone Mitochondria electron transport inhibitor [21] 12 hours spider mites and whiteflies  
pyriproxyfen
(Distance)
Pyridine (insect growth regulator) Juvenile hormone mimic [7C] 12 hours fungus gnat and shore fly larvae, scales, whiteflies  
pyrethrin
(Pyganic)
Botanical Sodium channel blocker [3] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, beetles, mealybugs, thrips, whiteflies Pyreth-It and Pyrethrum
pyrethrin and silicon dioxide
(Diatect V)
Botanical Central nervous system disruptor and desiccant [3] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, whiteflies  
spinosad
(Conserve/Entrust)
Spinosyn Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist [5] 4 hours caterpillars, thrips, leafminers  
spiromesifen
(Judo)
Tetronic acid Lipid biosynthesis inhibitor [23] 12 hours spider mites, broad mite, whiteflies  
Steinernema feltiae
(Nemasys)
Biological control (entomopathogenic nematode) Penetrant through insect cuticle and degrades internal contents 0 hours fungus gnat larvae NemaShield, Scanmask, Entonem
thiamethoxam
(Flagship)
Neonicotinoid Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor disruptor [4A] 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, mealybugs, scales  

Note
Numbers and letters in brackets [xx] indicate the IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) mode of action designation found on the label.

Table 2
Pesticides (insecticides and miticides) registered for use in organic production systems (ornamental plants, vegetables and herbs).

Common name or active ingredient (Trade name) Class Mode of action Reentry interval Labeled pests
azadirachtin
(Azatrol/Neemix)
Botanical (insect growth regulator) Ecdysone antagonist [18B] 4/12 hours aphids, fungus gnat larvae, thrips, whiteflies, caterpillars
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. israelensis
(Gnatrol)
Microbial Midgut membrane disruptor [11A1] 4 hours fungus gnat larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis spp. kurstaki
(Dipel)
Microbial Midgut membrane disruptor [11B2] 4 hours caterpillars
clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil
(Triact)
Botanical Suffocation or membrane disruptor 12 hours aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, scales
horticultural oils: petroleum oils (PureSpray Green), plant-based oils (GC-Mite/Golden Pest Spray Oil), fish-based oils
(Organocide)
Refined petroleum distillate and botanical Suffocation or membrane disruptor (some products have multiple modes of action; refer to label). 4 hours aphids, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies
kaolin clay
(Surround)
Protectant Multiple modes of action (refer to label) 4 hours caterpillars, beetles, tarnished plant bug, stink bug, thrips
potassium salts of fatty acids
(insecticidal soap/M-Pede)
Insecticidal soap Desiccation or membrane disruptor 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, fungus gnat adults, leafhoppers, mealybugs, scales, spider mites, whiteflies
pyrethrin
(Pyganic)
Botanical Sodium channel blocker [3] 12 hours aphids, caterpillars, beetles, mealybugs, thrips, whiteflies
spinosad
(Entrust)
Spinosyn Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and GABA chloride channel activator [5] 4 hours caterpillars, thrips, leafminers

Note
Numbers and letters in brackets [xx] indicate the IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee) mode of action designation found on the label.

More information about the National Organic Program

Biological control suppliers

Sources of biological control agents are listed in the publication Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America by Charles Hunter, which is available from the California Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) or from reputable suppliers.

Be sure to consult your biological control supplier to determine the availability and shipping requirements for the natural enemy species you are interested in.

  • Green Spot
    93 Priest Road
    Nottingham, N.H. 03290-6204
    603-942-8925
    greenmethods.com
    info@greenmethods.com
  • IPM Laboratories
    P.O. Box 300
    Locke, N.Y. 13092-0300
    315-497-2063
    ipmlabs.com
    ipminfo@Ipmlabs.com
  • Koppert Inc.
    Romulus, Mich.
    734-641-3763
    info@koppertline.com
  • Syngenta Bioline
    Oxnard, Calif.
    805-986-8255
    info@syngentabioline.com
  • BioBest Biological Systems
    biobest.be
    info@biobest.ca

Table 3
Common greenhouse and nursery pests and pesticides registered for their control. (Always read the label to determine if a pesticide can be used in a particular facility and on a specific crop.)

Pest Common name Trade name
aphids acephate Orthene/Precise
  acetamiprid TriStar
  azadirachtin Azatin/Ornazin
  Beauveria bassiana BotaniGard
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  chlorpyrifos Duraguard
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  dinotefuran Safari
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  fenpropathrin Tame
  flonicamid Aria
  fluvalinate Mavrik
  imidacloprid Marathon/Merit
  kinoprene Enstar II
  methiocarb Mesurol
  neem oil extract Triact
  paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine oil
  petroleum oil PureSpray Green
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pymetrozine Endeavor
  pyrethrin Pyganic
  pyrethrin and silicon dioxide Diatect V
  thiamethoxam Flagship
beetles pyrethrin Pyganic
caterpillars azadirachtin Azatin/Ornazin
  Bt spp. kurstaki Dipel
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  fenpropathrin Tame
  fenpyroximate Akari
  fluvalinate Mavrik
  novaluron Pedestal
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pyrethrin Pyganic
  pyrethrin and silicon dioxide Diatect V
  spinosad Conserve/Entrust
fungus gnat    
  adult bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenpropathrin Tame
  fluvalinate Mavrik
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  larvae azadirachtin Azatin/Ornazin
  Bt spp. israelensis Gnatrol
  chlorfenapyr Pylon
  chlorpyrifos Duragard
  cyromazine Citation
  diflubenzuron Adept
  kinoprene Enstar II
  pyriproxyfen Distance
  Steinernema feltiae Nemasys
leaf hoppers bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  buprofezin Talus
  chlorpyrifos Duraguard
  dinotefuran Safari
  fluvalinate Mavrik
 

potassium salts of fatty acids

Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
leaf miners abamectin Avid
  cyromazine Citation
  dinotefuran Safari
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  spinosad Conserve/Entrust
mealybugs acephate Orthene/Precise
  acetamiprid TriStar
  Beauveria bassiana BotaniGard
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  chlorpyrifos Duraguard
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  fenpropathrin Tame
  imidacloprid Marathon/Merit
  kinoprene Enstar II
  paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine oil
  petroleum oil PureSpray Green
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pyrethrin Pyganic
  thiamethoxam Flagship
mites    
  broad mite chlorfenapyr Pylon
  spiromesifen Judo
  cyclamen mite chlorfenapyr Pylon
  spider mite abamectin Avid
  acequinocyl Shuttle
  bifenazate Floramite
  chlorfenapyr Pylon
  clofentezine Ovation
  etoxazole TetraSan
  fenbutatin-oxide ProMite
  fenpyroximate Akari
  hexythiazox Hexagon
  milbemectin Ultraflora
  neem oil extract Triact
  paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine oil
 

petroleum oil

PureSpray Green
 

potassium salts of fatty acids

Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pyridaben Sanmite
  spiromesifen Judo
plant bugs bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  fluvalinate Mavrik
scales acephate Orthene/Precise
  acetamiprid TriStar
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  neem oil extract Triact
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  imidacloprid Marathon/Merit
  kinoprene Enstar II
  paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine oil
  petroleum oil PureSpray Green
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pyriproxfen Distance
  thiamethoxam Flagship
shore fly larvae cyromazine Citation
  diflubenzuron Adept
  pyriproxfen Distance
slugs/snails methiocarb Mesurol
thrips abamectin Avid
  acephate Orthene/Precise
  azadirachtin Azatin/Ornazin
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  chlorfenapyr Pylon
  chlorpyrifos Duraguard
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  flonicamid Aria
 

fluvalinate

Mavrik
  kinoprene Enstar II
  methiocarb Mesurol
 

novaluron

Pedestal
  pyrethrin Pyganic
  spinosad Conserve/Entrust
whiteflies acephate Orthene/Precise
  acetamiprid TriStar
  azadirachtin Azatin/Ornazin
  Beauveria bassiana BotaniGard
  bifenthrin Talstar/Attain
  neem oil extract Triact
  cyfluthrin Decathalon/Tempo
  fenoxycarb Preclude
  fenpropathrin Tame
  flonicamid Aria
  fluvalinate Mavrik
  imidacloprid Marathon/Merit
  kinoprene Enstar II
  novaluron Pedestal
  paraffinic oil Ultra-Fine oil
  petroleum oil PureSpray Green
  potassium salts of fatty acids Insecticidal soap/M-Pede
  pymetrozine Endeavor
  pyridaben Sanmite
  pyriproxfen Distance
  pyrethrin Pyganic
  pyrethrin and silicon dioxide Diatect V
  spiromesifen Judo
  thiamethoxam Flagship

Further information

  • Albajes, R., M. L. Gullino, J. C. van Lenteren, and Y. Elad (eds.). 1999. Integrated pest and disease management in greenhouse crops. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.
  • Bennett, K. C (ed.). 2009. Pest management guide for the production and maintenance of herbaceous perennials. Cornell University, Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, N.Y.
  • Cloyd, R. A. 2007. Plant protection: Managing greenhouse insect and mite pests. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Dreistadt, S. H. 2001. Integrated pest management for floriculture and nurseries. University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 3402. Oakland, Calif.
  • Gill, S., R. A. Cloyd, J. R. Baker, D. L. Clement, and E. Dutky. 2006. Pests and diseases of herbaceous perennials: The biological approach. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Gill, S., and J. Sanderson. 1998. Ball identification guide to greenhouse pests and beneficials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Heinz, K. M., R. G. Van Driesche, and M. P. Parrella (eds.). 2004. Biocontrol in protected culture. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Helyer, N., K. Brown, and N. D. Cattlin. 2003. A color handbook of biological control in plant protection. Timber Press, Portland, Ore.
  • Hofer, S. E., and D. H. Headrick. 2001. The bug cards: Greenhouse beneficials. Ball Publishing, Batavia, Ill.
  • Krischik, V., and J. Davidson (eds.). 2004. IPM (integrated pest management) of Midwest landscapes. Cooperative Project of NCR-193, North Central Committee on Landscape IPM, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station SB-07645.
  • Lindquist, R. K., and R. A. Cloyd. 2005. Identification of insects and related pests of horticultural plants. Ohio Floriculture Association Services, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.
  • Rice Mahr, S. E., R. A. Cloyd, D. L. Mahr, and C. S. Sadof. 2001. Biological control of insects and other pests of greenhouse crops. North Central Regional Publication 581. Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.
  • Thomas, C. 2005. Greenhouse IPM with an emphasis on biocontrols. Publication AGRS-96. Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Program, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa.

IPM1026, revised October 2009


IPM1026 Using Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses and Herbaceous Nurseries | University of Missouri Extension