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Fruit Spray Schedules for the Homeowner

Apples

Apples and pears

Apples and pears
Dormant sprays

DormantApply before buds swell.

Mites, scale

  • Material
    dormant oil
  • Comments
    Oil smothers overwintering eggs of mites and scale.
    Apply oil when temperature is above 40 degrees Fahrenheit.
    When European red mite infestations are high, the bright red eggs may be seen on the smaller branches and twigs.

Fire blight

  • Material
    Bordeaux mixture
  • Comments
    Apply alone — may have compatibility problems with other pesticides. Best if applied at the "silver tip" (bud swelling) stage. Do not apply after the "half-inch green" stage or when drying conditions are slow — severe plant injury may occur.
  • More information
    G6020, Fire Blight.

Apples and pears
Green tip to half-inch green sprays

DormantApply when green leaves are 0.25 to 0.5 inch long.

Mites, scale

  • Material
    dormant
    or summer oil
  • Comments
    Oil application delayed until this time may give even better control of scale than when applied earlier. Eggs of European red mite start to hatch at this time.
    Apply oil at temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit, and do not apply within 14 days before or after using sulfur or captan.

Leafminers

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or neem
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Newly developing mines appear as blotches only on the underside of the leaf, whereas completed mines buckle the leaf like a small tent (with white spots) and are visible on both the upper and lower leaf surfaces.
    Neem (azadirachtin) is a botanical insecticide.
    Spinosad is a naturally derived product from a species of bacteria.

Aphids

  • Material
    malathion
    or neem
    or insecticidal soap
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    For insecticidal soap repeat application 3 to 4 days later.
    Neem (azadirachtin) is a botanical insecticide.

Pear pyslla

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or permethrin
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Pear pest only — can secrete large amounts of honeydew that covers the fruit and foliage. The honeydew serves as a substratum for the growth of a black fungus.
    Do not make more than three permethrin sprays per season.

Primary scab

  • Material
    captan
    or mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
  • Comments
    Do not apply captan with or immediately following an oil spray. Combining captan with Bordeaux mixture or lime sulfur will reduce effectiveness of captan. Combinations of captan and sulfur may cause necrotic spotting on leaves of susceptible varieties (e.g., Jonathan, MacIntosh).
    captan is more effective on scab than sulfur.

Apples and pears
Prebloom or pink sprays

DormantApply when blossom buds are clearly evident but not open.

Plant bugs, stink bugs

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or permethrin
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Feeding injury results in aborted flowers and, later, in dimple-like scars on fruit.
    Do not make more than three permethrin sprays per season.

Aphids

  • Material
    malathion
    or carbaryl
    or neem
    or insecticidal soap
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Pear psylla

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or permethrin
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Primary scab

  • Material
    captan
    or mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Rust

  • Material
    mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
  • Comments
    MacIntosh, Golden Delicious, Jonathan, and certain other varieties may by injured by sulfur applications under certain conditions.Sulfur provides fair to poor rust control.

Powdery mildew

  • Material
    lime sulfur
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    Combinations of captan and sulfur may cause necrotic spotting on leaves of susceptible varieties.

Apples and pears
Bloom sprays

DormantApply when 25 percent of blossoms are open.
Do not use insecticides during this period — Save the bees.

Primary scab

  • Material
    captan
    or mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Fire blight

  • Material
    streptomycin
  • Comments
    Apply at first bloom on susceptible varieties. Repeat at 4 to 5 day intervals until the petal-fall stage.
  • More information
    G6020, Fire Blight.

Rust

  • Material
    mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom or pink" section.

Powdery mildew

  • Material
    lime sulfur
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom or pink" section.

Apples and pears
Petal-fall sprays

DormantApply when most of blossom petals have fallen.

Plum curculio, leafrollers

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or permethrin
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Surface feeding and egg laying by overwintering adult plum curculio scar (crescent-shaped cuts) or misshape (bumps) the fruit by harvest. Internal feeding by larvae may cause some premature fruit drop.Peak egg hatch of redbanded leafroller usually coincides with petal fall.
    Some labels indicate no applications of permethrin after petal-fall.
    Spinosad for leafrollers only.

Plant bugs, stink bugs

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or insecticidal soap
    or permethrin
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom to pink" section.
    For insecticidal soap repeat application 3 to 4 days later.
    Some labels indicate no applications of permethrin after petal-fall.

Aphids

  • Material
    malathion
    or insecticidal soap
    or neem
    or permethrin
    or imidacloprid
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Rosy apple aphid feeding often causes leaves to curl.See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.
    Some labels indicate no applications of permethrin after petal-fall.
    One application of imidacloprid per year.

Leafminers

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or neem
    or permethrin
    or spinosad
    or imidacloprid
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.Some labels indicate no applications of permethrin after petal-fall.
    One application of imidacloprid per year.

Pear psylla

  • Material
    esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Scab

  • Material
    captan
    or mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Rust

  • Material
    mancozeb
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom or pink" section.

Powdery mildew

  • Material
    lime sulfur
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom or pink" section.

Apples and pears
Early-season cover sprays

Apply 10 days after petal-fall and at 10-day intervals through May.

Codling moth, leafrollers

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    These sprays are critical for first-generation codling moth control.
    Codling moth larvae damage apples and pears by burrowing to the core (usually from the apple side or calyx end) with brown frass (fecal material) exuding from the entry site. In Missouri, there are often three generations of codling moth per season.
    Leafroller damage consists of skeletonized leaves folded together by webbing or attached to fruit where the larvae feed on the fruit surface making shallow, irregular channels.
    Do not apply carbaryl within 30 days after bloom to avoid possible fruit thinning.
    Spinosad for leafrollers only.

Plum curculio

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "petal-fall" section.
    Emerging adults in the summer feed on apples for a short time, causing round feeding scars on the fruit surface. Severely infested fruit may be covered with bumps and scarred at harvest.
    Do not apply carbaryl within 30 days after bloom to avoid possible fruit thinning.

Aphids

  • Material
    insecticidal soap
    or malathion
    or neem
    or imidacloprid
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "petal-fall" section.

Powdery mildew

  • Material
    lime sulfur
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    Discontinue sulfur use when temperatures reach 90 degrees Fahrenheit.

Leafminers

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or neem
    or imidacloprid
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip" section.
    High populations can cause severe defoliation, leading to reduced fruit and terminal growth, early leaf drop, and reduced fruit set the following season.
    Do not apply carbaryl within 30 days after bloom to avoid possible fruit thinning.

Mites

  • Material
    malathion
    or summer oil
    or insecticidal soap
    or neem
  • Comments
    Severe mite feeding results in brown foliage that eventually becomes bronzed (due to the removal of leaf cell contents, including chlorophyll).
    To prevent damage to foliage or fruits, never use a summer oil with captan, carbaryl, or other sulfur-containing pesticides. Allow at least 14 days between applications of sulfur-containing compounds and the use of a summer oil. Apply oil at temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit and below 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
    For insecticidal soap repeat application 2 to 3 days later.

Scale

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or summer oil
    or insecticidal soap
    or imidacloprid
  • Comments
    Scale crawlers typically active at this time.
    Do not apply carbaryl within 30 days after bloom to avoid possible fruit thinning.
    To prevent damage to foliage or fruits, never use a summer oil with captan, carbaryl, or other sulfur-containing pesticides. Allow at least 14 days between applications of sulfur-containing compounds and the use of a summer oil. Apply oil at temperatures above 40 degrees Fahrenheit and below 90 degrees Fahrenheit.
    For insecticidal soap repeat application 2 to 3 days later.
    One application of imidacloprid per year.

Pear psylla

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Scab

  • Material
    captan
    or myclobutanil
    or sulfur
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    See comments in "green-tip to half-inch green" section.

Rust

  • Material
    myclobutanil
    or sulfur
  • Comments
    See comments in "prebloom or pink" section.

Fruit rots

  • Material
    captan
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    These fungicides may be combined for increased effectiveness.

Apples and pears
Summer cover sprays

Apply at 14-day intervals, June through mid-August.

Codling moth, leafrollers

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or malathion
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "early-season cover sprays" section.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Mites

  • Material
    summer oil
    or malathion
    or insecticidal soap
    or pyrethrins and rotenone
  • Comments
    See comments in "early-season cover sprays" section.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Scale

  • Material
    summer oil
    or carbaryl
    or insecticidal soap
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "early-season cover sprays" section.
    On fruit the San Jose scale can be seen as a conspicuous red spot. Apply pesticide when crawlers are active.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Leafhoppers

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or neem
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    Damaged foliage (upper leaf surface) becomes speckled or mottled with white spots.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Leafminers

  • Material
    carbaryl
    or esfenvalerate
    or neem
    or spinosad
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "early-season cover sprays" section.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Aphids

  • Material
    insecticidal soap
    or malathion
    or neem
    or gamma-cyhalothrin
  • Comments
    See comments in "petal-fall sprays" section.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

Scab, fruit rots, sooty blotch and fly speck

  • Material
    captan
    or thiophanate-methyl
  • Comments
    These fungicides may be combined for increased effectiveness.
  • Days between last application and harvest
    Table 2

G6010, reviewed March 2011

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