News release: Fruit Crossword Puzzle Answers

Tim Baker, MU Extension Horticulture Specialist
102 N. Main, Suite 1, Gallatin, MO 64640
660-663-3232, bakert@missouri.edu

Release Date: January 21, 2016

Headline: Fruit Crossword Puzzle Answers

Here are the answers to my fruit crossword puzzle.

Across

1. One of the most common diseases found in Missouri grapes is  (BLACK) rot. Whenever someone calls me with a grape problem, it seems that most of the time it’s this fungal disease.

3. Perhaps the biggest pests of blueberries you will encounter are (BIRDS).  Birds simply can’t resist blueberries.  Many tactics are used in an attempt to keep them at bay, but netting your blueberries works best.

7. A common bacterial disease of apples and pears is (FIREBLIGHT).  Fireblight is a bacterial disease, which can infect the wood.

9. A tiny fruit fly, Spotted Wing (DROSOPHILA), has become a major pest in Missouri of several fruits. These insects really love small fruits, but have been noted in some tree fruits and tomatoes as well.

12. Some fruits are self-pollinated, and do not require a different variety to set fruit. (CROSS)-pollinated fruits do require pollen from another variety to get a good yield. Peaches are self-pollinated, but apples need pollen from another variety of apple to get fruit.

14. The custard apple family is generally native to the tropics. However, one member of that family is native to Missouri, the (PAWPAW).

16. The same organism of an interesting fungal disease infects trees of two different species, apples and (CEDAR) trees. It’s rare that the same disease organism infects two different plant species, but Cedar-Apple Rust sends its spores back and forth between these two trees.

17. A fruit which is enjoying resurgence in popularity due to its attributed medicinal properties is the (ELDERBERRY).  The University of Missouri hosted an interesting conference on elderberries a few years ago, bringing together biochemists, botanists, horticulturists, medical doctors, and other researchers from all over the world to discuss this interesting plant.

19. Common diseases of fruits can be caused by fungal, bacterial or (VIRAL) pathogens.

21. Rootstocks are used for (SIZE) control.  There are a wide range of rootstocks available for apples, for example, which differ in their ability to control size.  This gives the grower options to control the ultimate size of the tree, from dwarf, to semi-dwarf, on up to standard-sized trees.

22. The structures used in maintaining fruits have their own terminology. (CORDON) is a term used in grapes.  Cordons are the branches that come off of the main trunk and bear the fruits.

24. If you need to lower soil pH, elemental (SULFUR) is used. A soil test will tell you if you need to lower pH, and how much sulfur is needed to apply, if needed.

27. A nectarine is a fuzzless (PEACH).  Both nectarines and peaches are classed as the same genus and species, Prunus persica.

28. (BEES) or other pollinating insects are needed for good yields in apples and many other fruits and vegetables.

29. Mice, (VOLES), and other rodents may chew the bark off of young fruit trees.  Use a white plastic tree wrap to protect your tree.

30. Apples are best pruned to a central leader, while peaches do better when pruned to an (OPEN) center form.

31. Fruit trees are sometimes pruned to grow against a wall or fence. We refer to this process as (ESPALIER).  This is a good example where horticulture becomes an art form.

32. Many temperate zone fruits must experience a certain number of hours below 45 degrees F. to grow properly. We call this a (CHILLING) requirement.  That’s right.  If you grow a high-chilling requirement apple or peach in the deep south, and it doesn’t get enough chilling hours, it won’t do well at all.

33. Dates come from a (PALM) tree.  Don’t try this at home if you live in Northwest Missouri.

35. Peaches, nectarines, cherries, plums, and apricots are known as (STONE) fruits.

36. The Latin name for grapefruit is Citrus (PARADISI).

37. The native grape of the south is known as a (MUSCADINE).  Grapes are in the genus, Vitus.   Muscadines are Vitis rotundifolia.

38. The wood from the variety that we graft to the rootstock is called the (SCION).

 

Down

2. Blueberries require a very (ACID) soil.  You may need to add sulfur to get your soil down to a pH of 4.8-5.2.

4. Before planting any fruit crop, it’s a good idea to get a (SOIL) test.

5. Unlike carpenter saws which cut when you push, pruning saws cut when you (PULL).  A good pruning saw is a delight to work with in green wood.  Get a good razor tooth saw and you’ll see what I mean.

6. Botanically speaking, a strawberry is not a berry. It is an (AGGREGATE) fruit.  And botanically speaking, a tomato is a berry.

7. Most fruits are borne on wood which grew in the last growing season. Some will, however grow on current season wood. One example is the (FIG).  Peaches and apples form their fruit buds in the summer, and then if all goes right (weather-wise), those buds will produce fruit the next year.  Figs however, can be frozen back to the ground.  Shoots coming up the next year are still capable of growing fruit in that same year.  They are a challenge to grow in Northwest Missouri, but I have seen some.

8. The Red Necked Cane Borer is a pest of (RASPBERRIES).  They also are found in other brambles, such as blackberries.

10. Many of our temperate zone fruits are found in the (ROSE) family. Some of the fruit crops found in the rose family included apples, peaches, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, cherries, strawberries, and brambles.

11. (STRAWBERRIES) send out stolons that produce daughter plants.   We also call these runners.

13. Dormant oil is used to control (SCALE) insects.

15. Blueberries do not do well in soils which have high (CALCIUM).

18. With traditional blackberries and raspberries, the cane that comes up the first year is referred to as a primocane. That same cane flowers and produces fruit the next year. It is referred to as a (FLORICANE).

20. Known as a Chinese date, the (JUJUBE) will grow in our area.

23. Nursery stock can bring diseases to your planting. (TISSUE) cultured plants are usually disease-free, and are the best to purchase if available.

25. Strawberries need to be renewed every year to produce well. We call this process (RENOVATION).

26. (SUCKERS) are vigorous shoots coming up from the root system of fruit trees. They should be removed.  In fruit trees, these would be coming from the rootstock, and not the scion.  Since the scion is the variety that you wanted to grow, the rootstock may not produce desirable fruit.

27. The fruit of the (PERSIMMON) tree is delicious when ripe, but is very astringent if picked too early.

29. Traditional wine grapes from Europe do well in California, but are marginal in Missouri. They are known as Vitus (VINIFERA).

34. The Latin name for our common apple is (MALUS) domestica. The genus indicates that the predominate organic acid found in apples is malic acid.