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Monthly Crop Report 

Late season rains slow harvest, could cause disease

PDFAudio

Phomopsis seed rot occurs when harvest is delayed due to rainy, wet weather or when soybeans mature during wet weather and harvest is delayed. Seed infection may reduce seed quality, vigor, and viability. Severely diseased seeds appear moldy, may be graded lower and docked at the elevator.

Symptoms
Symptoms of Phomopsis seed rot, pod and stem blight are apparent after the plants reach maturity. Dead petioles, stems, and pods may be covered with small black specks, which are the fruiting bodies of the fungus (pycnidia). The pycnidia are parallel along the stem, usually on the lower portion, or scattered on pods and. Affected seeds are usually cracked, shriveled, and covered with white mold. Severely infected seeds rarely germinate when planted.

Phomoposis

Phomopsis

Disease Cycle
Phomopsis-Diaporthe fungi overwinter as pycnidia on previously infected soybean residue. Pods may become infected at any time, but most seed infection occurs after the yellow pod stage (R7). Prolonged wet periods after flowering and pod set favor the infection and development of pod and stem blight. As pods mature, the fungus grows from the wall of the pod to the seed. Seed infection is greatly increased if harvesting of the crop is delayed during warm wet weather.

Management of Pod and Stem Blight and Phomopsis

1. Harvest when seed reaches 13%–16% moisture regardless of stem conditions

2. Rotation with wheat or corn

3. Tillage

4. Fungicides applied to pods at midflowering to late pod stage may reduce incidence of disease

2014 Crop Scouting program survey (PDF)

2014 Crop Scouting program survey link

More Information
The weekly field scouting report is sponsored by University of Missouri Extension and Barton County Extension. For more information on this scouting report, or to learn how to receive it a week earlier by telephone, contact the MU Extension Center in Barton County, (417) 682-3579.
 

Links to other resources:

“Scouting for Podworms in Soybeans.”

Measuring and Reducing Corn Havest Losses

Lodged corn

Soybean insects

Scouting for Corn Earworms in corn

Scouting for Armyworms in wheat

"Crop Nutrient Deficiency and Toxicities"

Previous 2014 Crop Scouting Reports

“Managing Nitrogen in Wet and Dry Years” by Peter Scharf

MU Extension Corn Insect Pests Diagnostic guide

MU Extension publication G7112, Black cutworm guide

Corn freeze damage

Spring freeze injury

Frost freeze to corn and soybeans

MU Extension publication M171, 2013 Missouri Pest Management Guide

To receive the 2014 weekly scouting reports, print the 2014 Crop Scouting Enrollment Form (PDF), complete and return with payment to Barton County Extension, 801 E 12th, Lamar, MO 64759.

Crop scouting is an essential part of integrated pest management (IPM). Scouting programs are designed to protect and maximize crop yield and quality while minimizing the risk associated with pesticide use.  Each week, extension agronomy specialists and agronomy assistants scout fields in Barton County and then report their findings through an automated phone service and email message. The message will go out to everyone signed up for the program.

The cost of the program is only $35 per phone number, $95 for three numbers, and $30 per phone number for those with 4 or more. For more information about the program, call the Barton County Extension Center at 417-682-3579.

 

Popular extension publications

MU Extension publication G427, 2011 Cash Rental Rates in Missouri
MU Extension publication G302, 2009 Custom Rates for Farm Services in Missouri
MU Extension publication G6201, Vegetable Planting Calendar