Crop scouting reports

Crop scouting is an essential part of integrated pest management (IPM). Scouting programs are designed to protect and maximize crop yield and quality while minimizing the risk associated with pesticide use. 

Each week, an extension agronomy specialist scouts fields in Barton County and then report their findings through an automated phone service and email message. The message will go out to everyone signed up for the program.

The weekly field scouting report is sponsored by University of Missouri Extension and Barton County Extension.  To receive the 2018 weekly scouting reports, print the Crop Scouting Enrollment Form, complete and return with payment to Barton County Extension, 801 E 12th, Lamar, MO 64759 or contact the MU Extension Center in Barton County, 417-682-3579.

The cost of the program is only $35 per phone number, $95 for three numbers and $30 per phone number for those with four or more. 

Crop Scouting Enrollment Form (PDF)

Current weekly report

April 25

LAMAR, Mo. –Jill Scheidt, agronomy specialist with University of Missouri Extension, scouted fields south of Jasper April 25. She observed wheat at flag leaf emergence, and emerging to 2-leaf corn.

 

WHEAT

 

Scheidt did not observe foliar diseases, but notes stripe rust has been reported in Jasper Co and a couple counties in Kansas. “If you have diseases, monitor them closely and if they begin to move up the plant, consider a fungicide to protect the flag leaf as it accounts for 75% of grain fill. Remember a foliar fungicide made during flag leaf will not protect against head scab. Make fusarium head scab applications during flowering if warm, humid conditions are present,” said Scheidt.

 

Scheidt observed bird cherry oat aphids in all fields. “Thick, lush fields had higher populations of 20 or more bird cherry oat aphids per foot of row. Consider an insecticide when densities reach 12-25 bird cherry oat aphids per foot of row. To differentiate bird cherry oat aphids, look for dark, olive green colored aphids with a red band near their rear,” said Scheidt.

 

Winter grain mite update: Winter grain mites are an uncommon pest in Missouri. Look for small black mites, with reddish orange legs near the base of plants. Positively identify them using a hand lens to locate the anal pore that looks like a water droplet on their back. They normally occur during dry conditions in continuous wheat and undisturbed ground. “Generally, wheat can outgrow winter grain mite feeding, especially if adequate moisture is present. If they are present at high levels, watch for signs of damage, such as a silver cast to fields or burnt leaf tips as an indicator to control the mites,” said Scheidt.

 

CORN

 

“Now is the time to watch for black cutworm,” said Scheidt. Late planted corn is more susceptible to damage, especially if conditions are cool, wet and plant growth is slow. Look for plants cut off at or just below the soil level. “All the corn looked healthy, but dig up young corn plants and inspect the lower stem and roots for discoloration and soft stems resulting from seedling rots,” said Scheidt. Cool, moist conditions are conducive to seedling rots.

 For more information about the program, or to sign up for the program, contact Jill Scheidt at the Barton County Extension office, (417) 682-3579. 

 

April 18

LAMAR, Mo. –Jill Scheidt, agronomy specialist with MU Extension, scouted wheat fields near the junction of 126 and I-49 highways April 18. She found wheat at the second joint stage.

 

Scheidt observed bird cherry oat aphids, winter grain mite and the start of powdery mildew in lush, recently fertilized wheat fields.

 

Scheidt observed a range of nine to twenty bird cherry oat aphids per foot of row. “Bird cherry oat aphids are differentiated from other aphids by their olive green colored bodies with a red band near their rear, seen when using a magnifying glass,” said Scheidt. Bird cherry oat aphids vector barley yellow dwarf virus; treatment advised when populations reach the threshold level of 12-25 bird cherry oat aphids per foot of row. “Scout by looking in leaf folds and the underside of leaves; they are most active in temperatures above 60 degrees Fahrenheit,” said Scheidt.

 

Powdery mildew begins as light green to yellow flecks on lower leaves that progress to fluffy white mold growth. “Monitor progression of the disease and use a fungicide if the flag leaf is present and the disease begins to move up the plant,” said Scheidt. Warm, dry conditions stop disease development.

 

Scheidt observed several hundred winter grain mites in one wheat field and a several in other fields. Winter grain mites are 1 mm long, have black bodies and reddish-orange legs. “Positively identify them by using a hand lens to find the anal gland on their back that looks like a water droplet,” said Scheidt. According to Kansas State University Extension, second generation winter grain mites appear from March to May and are most active on cloudy days when temperatures range from 40-70 degrees Fahrenheit. “I am still gathering information to find if this unique pest is of economic importance or not,” said Scheidt. She hopes to have more information next week.

 

“Warrior II at a rate of 1.92 oz/ac is labeled for control of mite species and bird cherry oat aphids,” said Scheidt.

 

According to the MU Lamar Weather Station, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 55 degrees Fahrenheit at 10:00 am on Wednesday, April 18.

 

For more information about the program, or to sign up for the program, contact Jill Scheidt at the Barton County Extension office, (417) 682-3579. 

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Article resources

https://entomology.k-state.edu/extension/insect-information/crop-pests/wheat/winter-grain-mite.html

 

https://www.agweb.com/assets/import/files/em8976-e.pdf

 

http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/content/dam/pubs_ext_vt_edu/444/444-037/444-037_pdf.pdf

 

https://pnwhandbooks.org/insect/hay-pasture/pasture-grass-hay/pasture-grass-hay-clover-winter-grain-mite

 

http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld8JD001.pdf

 

http://agebb.missouri.edu/weather/realTime/maps/index.php#2in_soil_temp

 

April 11

 

 

LAMAR, Mo. –Jill Scheidt, agronomy specialist with MU Extension, scouted fields around Barton County April 11. She observed wheat at the second joint, and newly sprouted corn.

 

If wheat is jointing, moderate to severe damage can occur at temperatures at or lower than 24 degrees F for two or more hours. Symptoms include death of growing point, leaf yellowing or burning, lesions, splitting or bending of lower stem and odor.

 

“Identify the joint stage by running fingers along the stem, feeling for the first node,” said Scheidt.

 

“To assess possible injury, carefully split stems open just above the growing point, which is the uppermost node, to expose the developing head”, said Scheidt.

 

A normal growing point is bright white to tallow-green and turgid. Freeze injury causes the developing head to become off-white or brown and water soaked in appearance.

 

“The growing points I observed were 2-6” from the crown and appear healthy an undamaged,” said Scheidt.

 

Stripe rust in boot stage wheat has been confirmed in Montgomery Co. KS, which is in the SE corner of the state. “Scout for light green lesions with bright orange pustules, running in stripes along the leaves,” said Scheidt.

 

According to Greg Luce, state grains specialist with University of Missouri Extension, the first water the corn seed takes in (imbibes) is important for the initiation of germination. A chilling effect occurs when water colder than 50°F is taken in. The cold water disrupts the reorganization of cells during rehydration and can result in the loss of seed vigor or seed death. The most critical time for imbibition is within 24 hours of planting.

 

“Wait until 2-inch bare soil temperatures will consistently read 50°F for a few days before planting corn to avoid injury,” said Scheidt.

 

“Sprouted corn can generally withstand a frost or freezing conditions because the growing point is beneath the soil. Temperatures between 28°F and 32°F are damaging, but can become lethal when they fall below 28°F,” said Luce.

 

“The extent of injury to corn and wheat will not be fully evident until temperatures warm and growth resumes. Wait until later this week, when temperatures warm to assess damage,” said Scheidt.

 

According to the MU Lamar Weather Station, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 46 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:20 am on Wednesday, April 11.

 

For more information about the program, or to sign up for the program, contact Jill Scheidt at the Barton County Extension office, (417) 682-3579. 

 

April 4

 

LAMAR, Mo. –Jill Scheidt, agronomy specialist with MU Extension, scouted fields April 4. She found earlier planted wheat jointing, while later planted wheat was still tillering.

 

“Cold weather could have an effect on crop growth,” said Scheidt.

 

If wheat is tillering, slight to moderate damage can occur if temperatures are at or lower than 12 degrees F for two or more hours. Symptoms include leaf chlorosis, burnt leaf tips, silage odor and blue cast to fields.

 

If wheat is jointing, moderate to severe damage can occur at temperatures at or lower than 24 degrees F for two or more hours. Symptoms include death of growing point, leaf yellowing or burning, lesions, splitting or bending of lower stem and odor. https://ipm.missouri.edu/IPCM/2017/3/Understanding_Wheat_Growth_Stages_for_Estimating_Wheat_Freeze_Injury/

 

“Identify the joint stage by running fingers along the stem, feeling for the first node,” said Scheidt.

 

According to Purdue University, if temperatures drop below 28 degrees F for a few hours, the growing point of young corn plants can be injured or killed even if it is still below the soil surface. Leaves may blacken and wither. Yield loss due to early freeze is primarily related to stand loss. https://www.agry.purdue.edu/ext/corn/news/articles.02/frost_freeze-0520.html  

https://www.pioneer.com/home/site/us/agronomy/library/preemergence-freeze-damage/

 

Newly planted corn may be at risk if soil temperatures drop to 50 degrees F or lower within twenty-four hours of planting. If the seed absorbs cold water, the cold water disrupts the reorganization of cells and can result in loss of vigor or seed death. https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/cropnews/2014/05/imbibitional-chilling-and-frost-damage-corn-and-soybean-seedlings

 

According to Kaitlyn Bissonnette, pathologist with MU, prolonged cold, wet weather after a freeze increases the chance for disease development of corn. Soil type and management of the soil, for example tilled or not, can have an effect on extent of damage too.

“The extent of injury to corn and wheat will not be fully evident until temperatures warm and growth resumes. It is best to wait at least one week or until temperatures warm to assess damage,” said Scheidt.

 

According to the MU Lamar Weather Station, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 35 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:30am on Wednesday, April 4.

 

For more information about the program, or to sign up for the program, contact Jill Scheidt at the Barton County Extension office, (417) 682-3579. 

March 28

Hello, this is Jill Scheidt, MU Extension agronomy specialist with your March 28th crop update.

Fields were checked near Verdella, northwest of Lamar.

Wheat was in the green-up stage. Weed pressure was moderately high in fields with thinner stands. Henbit was already flowered and chickweed was starting to grow or flowered. If chickweed and henbit are flowered out, viable seed has already been dropped. Generally, weeds compete for light, nutrients and water the most during the vegetative stage.

If flooding occurs, 3 main factors affect the extent of damage: water temperature, amount of water motion during the flood and the duration of the flood. Warm water temperatures and still water increase respiration and deplete oxygen faster. Other conditions influence extent of damage, but generally, plants cannot tolerate more than 36-48 hours of submersion. The plant is more likely to survive if the growing point is above water.

According to University of Nebraska, survivability of seeds varies among varieties, but generally can survive 4 days. Longer flooding can result in lower yields, especially if nitrogen is lost. If soils become crusted, emergence will also be reduced.

https://extension2.missouri.edu/agw1014

https://cropwatch.unl.edu/corn-and-soybean-survival-saturated-and-flooded-soils

According to the MU Weather Station in Lamar, the 2-inch bare soil temperature was 56 degrees Fahrenheit on Monday, March 26th at 3:00 pm.

Call 417-682-3579 for more information. If you have not paid the $35 to renew your subscription, this will be your last update. Remit $35 to Barton County Extension at 801 E 12th in Lamar to renew. Thank you.

 

March 21

Scheidt scouting fields near Golden City on March 21. She found wheat was in the tillering to green-up stage.

“Green-up stage is identified by the beginning of erect growth of leaves and main tiller. Nitrogen should be added soon for most efficient uptake. Livestock should be removed at this time if a grain crop is to be produced. Once wheat begins to joint, the head moves up the stem and is more easily damaged by equipment and livestock,” said Scheidt.

 

No aphids were seen, but Scheidt recommends to continue scouting.

 

“As temperatures warm, aphids are more likely to be found on leaves. Begin scouting in lush areas in the field, as aphids prefer to take cover in thicker areas of growth,” said Scheidt.

 

According to the MU weather station in Lamar, Missouri, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 48 degrees Fahrenheit at 11:30 am on March 21.

 

March 14

THIS WEEK’S WHEAT REPORT

 

Scheidt scouting fields west of Lamar on March 14. She found wheat was in the tillering to green-up stage.

 

No aphids were present. However, continue to scout for them by looking near the crowns at the base of the plant and soil surface. Aphids are usually not active in temperatures below 60 degrees Fahrenheit,” said Scheidt.

 

The best time to add nitrogen to wheat is at the first joint stage. Plant growth increases during this time, so nitrogen is most efficiently used.

 

Not many weeds were present in this field during scouting.

 

 “If raising a grain crop, remove grazing livestock before joint in order to prevent damage to the developing head, which is visible by splitting the stem in half during the joint stage,” said Scheidt.

“Some wheat had purple tips, due to cooler temperatures. This discoloration should fade as temperatures warm,” said Scheidt.

Scheidt observed a little septoria on leaves; a common disease identified by brown lesions with black fungus, or pycnidia, in the center of the lesion. Septoria is caused during warm, prolonged wet conditions. “It is a common disease and usually doesn’t require treatment,” said Scheidt.

According to the MU weather station in Barton County, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 35 degrees Fahrenheit at 8:30 am on March 13.

 

March 7

Time to Subscribe to MU Extension Weekly Field Crop Scouting Report for Southwest Missouri

 

LAMAR, Mo. – This is the seventh year for a field crop scouting program designed to help busy farmers with pest management efforts.

 

An agronomy specialist with MU Extension scouts fields weekly then shares the findings through an automated phone service to program subscribers. Fields are scouted in Barton, Jasper, Newton, Dade, Cedar and Greene counties.

 

The weekly scouting report is delivered to any subscriber telephone number or email address.

 

“Communicating with producers quickly is a challenge. Farmers today cover so much ground it is hard for them to stay on top of pests as they arrive each season.  A simple phone message stating what we are seeing, how to scout for it and control options enables the producer with the skills to identify a pest and make a decision on whether or not to treat,” said Scheidt.

 

Crop scouting is an essential part of integrated pest management (IPM).  Scouting programs are designed to protect crop yield and quality while minimizing risk associated with pesticide use. 

 

“Our weekly scouting report will be a reminder for farmers that they may also need to check their fields or it may remind them to contact a private crop scout,” said Scheidt.

 

However, Scheidt is quick to add that this unique weekly service is not designed to replace a farmers own scouting nor should it be used instead of hiring a professional crop scout. 

 

“It’s just another set of eyes, that is helping to monitor pests,” says Scheidt. 

 

The cost of the program is $35 per year.

 

For more information about the program, or to sign up for the program, contact Jill Scheidt at the Barton County Extension office, (417) 682-3579. 

 

THIS WEEK’S WHEAT REPORT

 

Scheidt scouting fields west of Iantha on March 7. She found wheat was in the tillering to green-up stage.

 

“No aphids were present. However, continue to scout for them by looking near the crowns at the base of the plant,” said Scheidt.

 

The best time to add nitrogen to wheat is at the first joint stage. Plant growth increases during this time, so nitrogen is most efficiently used.

 

Not many weeds were present in this field during scouting.

 

 “If a herbicide application is needed, be sure to check the stage of the wheat, as some herbicides cannot be sprayed after the joint stage,” said Scheidt. Read the pesticide label to ensure proper application.

Remove livestock form wheat before the joint stage if raising a grain crop.

 

According to the MU weather station in Barton County, the two-inch bare soil temperature was 47 degrees Fahrenheit at 12:00 pm on March 7.

 

MU Extension
University of Missouri Extension programs focus on the high-priority needs of Missourians to improve lives, communities and economies by providing relevant, responsive and reliable educational solutions. Each county extension center, with oversight by locally elected and appointed citizens, is your local link to practical education on almost anything. More information on this topic is available online at http://extension.missouri.edu.

Previous crop scouting reports

May 2 PDF

April 25 PDF

April 18  PDF

April 11 PDF

April  4 PDF

March 28 PDF

March 21 PDF

March 14 PDF

March 7 PDF

 

 

 

Links to other resources:

Recommended fungicides for stripe rust

University of Florida velvetbean caterpillar information

"Estimating Corn Grain Yield prior to Harvest"  (Purdue University

“Grain Fill Stages in Corn” article from Purdue University

2015 Pest Management Guide

Make the most from late planted soybean

Assessing soybean plant stands

 

Current soil temperatures in Lamar are updated every five minutes and can be found at http://agebb.missouri.edu/weather/realtime/lamar.asp