Developed by Mary Gosche, Human Development Specialist, University of Missouri Extension
Relationship to Building
Brief program description
A parentís happy mood, enjoyment of the child, and a relaxed home environment are predictive of a preschoolerís positive health and well-being (Stevenson-Hinde & Shouldice, 1995). Through the school-age years and into adolescence, parenting styles that consider the unique needs of the child, yet place an emphasis on personal responsibility and appropriate levels of encouraging independence, are related to optimal child outcomes (Bornstein, 1995).
Conversely, parenting behaviors that do not take into consideration the needs of the child are reflected in less positive child outcomes. For instance, children who experience insensitive, coercive, and unreasonably demanding parenting often experience lower academic achievement, poor peer relations, and poor self-esteem (Baumrind, 1994). Thus, working towards parenting, discipline and guidance styles that are positive, child-centered, and respectful of childrenís developmental needs, promotes family strengths.
In summary, research indicates that the use of authoritative or inductive methods (firm but supportive, controlling but responsive), are associated with more positive behavioral and cognitive development in the child. Authoritarian or power-assertive methods of physical punishment, deprivation of privileges, and demanding, are associated with less positive outcomes.
Goals and objectives
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